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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Common cell shape evolution of two nasopharyngeal pathogens.

Respiratory infectious diseases are the third cause of worldwide death. The nasopharynx is the portal of entry and the ecological niche of many microorganisms, of which some are pathogenic to humans, such as Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis. These microbes possess several surface structures that interact with the actors of the innate immune system. In our attempt to understand the past evolution of these bacteria and their adaption to the nasopharynx, we first studied differences in cell wall structure, one of the strongest immune-modulators. We were able to show that a modification of peptidoglycan (PG) composition (increased proportion of pentapeptides)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The assembly and characterisation of two structurally distinct cattle MHC class I haplotypes point to the mechanisms driving diversity.

In cattle, there are six classical MHC class I genes that are variably present between different haplotypes. Almost all known haplotypes contain between one and three genes, with an allele of Gene 2 present on the vast majority. However, very little is known about the sequence and therefore structure and evolutionary history of this genomic region. To address this, we have refined the MHC class I region in the Hereford cattle genome assembly and sequenced a complete A14 haplotype from a homozygous Holstein. Comparison of the two haplotypes revealed extensive variation within the MHC class Ia region, but not within…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, a desert isolate with broad-spectrum antagonism against soilborne phytopathogens.

Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. The 8.2-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants. Copyright © 2015 Köberl et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14, an antagonistic root endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla.

Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2015 Köberl et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598, a non-type strain producing butanol.

The strain Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 is non-type, oxygen tolerant, spore-forming, mesophilic and heterofermentative strain with high hydrogen production and ability of acetone-butanol fermentation (ethanol production being negligible). Here, we present the annotated complete genome sequence of this bacterium, replacing the previous draft genome assembly. The genome consisting of a single circular 6,186,879bp chromosome with no plasmid was determined using PacBio RSII and Roche 454 sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

In vivo evolution of bacterial resistance in two cases of Enterobacter aerogenes infections during treatment with imipenem.

Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are a major concern worldwide. Changes in membrane permeability, including decreased influx and/or increased efflux of antibiotics, are known as key contributors of bacterial MDR. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand molecular mechanisms that link membrane permeability to MDR in order to design new antimicrobial strategies. In this work, we describe genotype-phenotype correlations in Enterobacter aerogenes, a clinically problematic and antibiotic resistant bacterium. To do this, series of clinical isolates have been periodically collected from two patients during chemotherapy with imipenem. The isolates exhibited different levels of resistance towards multiple classes…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. Copyright © 2015 Köberl et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of a nitrate-reducing, o-phthalate degrading bacterium, Azoarcus sp. strain PA01(T).

Azoarcus sp. strain PA01(T) belongs to the genus Azoarcus, of the family Rhodocyclaceae within the class Betaproteobacteria. It is a facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, non-motile, Gram-stain negative, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Constance, Germany. It is of interest because of its ability to degrade o-phthalate and a wide variety of aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Elucidation of the o-phthalate degradation pathway may help to improve the treatment of phthalate-containing wastes in the future. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence information and annotation.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Thermus scotoductus strain K1, Isolated from a geothermal spring in Karvachar, Nagorno Karabakh.

The 2,379,636-bp draft genome sequence of Thermus scotoductus strain K1, isolated from geothermal spring outlet located in the Karvachar region in Nagorno Karabakh is presented. Strain K1 shares about 80% genome sequence similarity with T. scotoductus strain SA-01, recovered from a deep gold mine in South Africa. Copyright © 2015 Saghatelyan et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Stenotrophomonas comparative genomics reveals genes and functions that differentiate beneficial and pathogenic bacteria.

In recent years, the number of human infections caused by opportunistic pathogens has increased dramatically. Plant rhizospheres are one of the most typical natural reservoirs for these pathogens but they also represent a great source for beneficial microbes with potential for biotechnological applications. However, understanding the natural variation and possible differences between pathogens and beneficials is the main challenge in furthering these possibilities. The genus Stenotrophomonas contains representatives found to be associated with human and plant host.We used comparative genomics as well as transcriptomic and physiological approaches to detect significant borders between the Stenotrophomonas strains: the multi-drug resistant pathogenic S.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Association mapping, patterns of linkage disequilibrium and selection in the vicinity of the PHYTOCHROME C gene in pearl millet.

Linkage analysis confirmed the association in the region of PHYC in pearl millet. The comparison of genes found in this region suggests that PHYC is the best candidate. Major efforts are currently underway to dissect the phenotype-genotype relationship in plants and animals using existing populations. This method exploits historical recombinations accumulated in these populations. However, linkage disequilibrium sometimes extends over a relatively long distance, particularly in genomic regions containing polymorphisms that have been targets for selection. In this case, many genes in the region could be statistically associated with the trait shaped by the selected polymorphism. Statistical analyses could help…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The odd one out: Bacillus ACT bacteriophage CP-51 exhibits unusual properties compared to related Spounavirinae W.Ph. and Bastille.

The Bacillus ACT group includes three important pathogenic species of Bacillus: anthracis, cereus and thuringiensis. We characterized three virulent bacteriophages, Bastille, W.Ph. and CP-51, that infect various strains of these three species. We have determined the complete genome sequences of CP-51, W.Ph. and Bastille, and their physical genome structures. The CP-51 genome sequence could only be obtained using a combination of conventional and second and third next generation sequencing technologies – illustrating the problems associated with sequencing highly modified DNA. We present evidence that the generalized transduction facilitated by CP-51 is independent of a specific genome structure, but likely due…

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