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Friday, July 19, 2019

Pangenome analysis of Bifidobacterium longum and site-directed mutagenesis through by-pass of restriction-modification systems.

Bifidobacterial genome analysis has provided insights as to how these gut commensals adapt to and persist in the human GIT, while also revealing genetic diversity among members of a given bifidobacterial (sub)species. Bifidobacteria are notoriously recalcitrant to genetic modification, which prevents exploration of their genomic functions, including those that convey (human) health benefits.PacBio SMRT sequencing was used to determine the whole genome seqeunces of two B. longum subsp. longum strains. The B. longum pan-genome was computed using PGAP v1.2 and the core B. longum phylogenetic tree was constructed using a maximum-likelihood based approach in PhyML v3.0. M.blmNCII was cloned in…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genome analysis of the fruiting body forming myxobacterium Chondromyces crocatus reveals high potential for natural product biosynthesis.

Here we report the first complete genome sequence of the type strain of the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces – Chondromyces crocatus Cm c5. It presents one of the largest prokaryotic genomes featuring a single circular chromosome and no plasmids. Analysis revealed an enlarged set of tRNA genes, along with reduced pressure on preferred codon usage compared to other bacterial genomes. The large coding capacity and the plethora of encoded secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters is in line with the capability of Cm c5 to produce an arsenal of anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and cytotoxic compounds. Known pathways of the ajudazol, chondramide, chondrochloren, crocacin,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A role for the bacterial GATC methylome in antibiotic stress survival.

Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious public health threat. Understanding pathways allowing bacteria to survive antibiotic stress may unveil new therapeutic targets. We explore the role of the bacterial epigenome in antibiotic stress survival using classical genetic tools and single-molecule real-time sequencing to characterize genomic methylation kinetics. We find that Escherichia coli survival under antibiotic pressure is severely compromised without adenine methylation at GATC sites. Although the adenine methylome remains stable during drug stress, without GATC methylation, methyl-dependent mismatch repair (MMR) is deleterious and, fueled by the drug-induced error-prone polymerase Pol IV, overwhelms cells with toxic DNA breaks. In multiple…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Long read sequencing technology to solve complex genomic regions assembly in plants

Background: Numerous completed or on-going whole genome sequencing projects have highlighted the fact that obtaining a high quality genome sequence is necessary to address comparative genomics questions such as structural variations among genotypes and gain or loss of specific function. Despite the spectacular progress that has been made in sequencing technologies, obtaining accurate and reliable data is still a challenge, both at the whole genome scale and when targeting specific genomic regions. These problems are even more noticeable for complex plant genomes. Most plant genomes are known to be particularly challenging due to their size, high density of repetitive elements…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Multiple origins of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis by separate hybridizations between two parental species.

Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus.

Endogenous viral elements are increasingly found in eukaryotic genomes, yet little is known about their origins, dynamics, or function. Here we provide a compelling example of a DNA virus that readily integrates into a eukaryotic genome where it acts as an inducible antiviral defence system. We found that the virophage mavirus, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), integrates at multiple sites within the nuclear genome of the marine protozoan Cafeteria roenbergensis. The endogenous mavirus is structurally and genetically similar to eukaryotic DNA transposons and endogenous viruses of the Maverick/Polinton family. Provirophage genes are not constitutively expressed, but…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Comparative and functional genomics of the Lactococcus lactis taxon; insights into evolution and niche adaptation.

Lactococcus lactis is among the most widely studied lactic acid bacterial species due to its long history of safe use and economic importance to the dairy industry, where it is exploited as a starter culture in cheese production.In the current study, we report on the complete sequencing of 16 L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genomes. The chromosomal features of these 16 L. lactis strains in conjunction with 14 completely sequenced, publicly available lactococcal chromosomes were assessed with particular emphasis on discerning the L. lactis subspecies division, evolution and niche adaptation. The deduced pan-genome of L. lactis…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Diversity of the TLR4 immunity receptor in Czech native cattle breeds revealed using the Pacific Biosciences sequencing platform.

The allelic variants of immunity genes in historical breeds likely reflect local infection pressure and therefore represent a reservoir for breeding. Screening to determine the diversity of the Toll-like receptor gene TLR4 was conducted in two conserved cattle breeds: Czech Red and Czech Red Pied. High-throughput sequencing of pooled PCR amplicons using the PacBio platform revealed polymorphisms, which were subsequently confirmed via genotyping techniques. Eight SNPs found in coding and adjacent regions were grouped into 18 haplotypes, representing a significant portion of the known diversity in the global breed panel and presumably exceeding diversity in production populations. Notably, the ancient…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

First report of two complete Clostridium chauvoei genome sequences and detailed in silico genome analysis.

Clostridium (C.) chauvoei is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic bacterium. It causes black leg in ruminants, a typically fatal histotoxic myonecrosis. High quality circular genome sequences were generated for the C. chauvoei type strain DSM 7528(T) (ATCC 10092(T)) and a field strain 12S0467 isolated in Germany. The origin of replication (oriC) was comparable to that of Bacillus subtilis in structure with two regions containing DnaA boxes. Similar prophages were identified in the genomes of both C. chauvoei strains which also harbored hemolysin and bacterial spore formation genes. A CRISPR type I-B system with limited variations in the repeat number was…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo.

Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites, viral barcodes, and strategies based on transposons and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system. Polylox recombination in…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Highly sensitive detection of mutations in CHO cell recombinant DNA using multi-parallel single molecule real-time DNA sequencing.

High-fidelity replication of biologic-encoding recombinant DNA sequences by engineered mammalian cell cultures is an essential pre-requisite for the development of stable cell lines for the production of biotherapeutics. However, immortalized mammalian cells characteristically exhibit an increased point mutation frequency compared to mammalian cells in vivo, both across their genomes and at specific loci (hotspots). Thus unforeseen mutations in recombinant DNA sequences can arise and be maintained within producer cell populations. These may affect both the stability of recombinant gene expression and give rise to protein sequence variants with variable bioactivity and immunogenicity. Rigorous quantitative assessment of recombinant DNA integrity should…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Sb3-1, a soilborne bacterium with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens.

The genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa Sb3-1, a strain that shows antagonistic activities against pathogenic fungi and bacteria, consists of one 5.6-Mb circular chromosome and two plasmids of 223 kb and 8 kb. The genome reveals several genes that potentially contribute to its antagonistic and plant growth promotion activity. Copyright © 2015 Rybakova et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster male-killing Spiroplasma strain MSRO endosymbiont.

Spiroplasmas are helical and motile members of a cell wall-less eubacterial group called Mollicutes. Although all spiroplasmas are associated with arthropods, they exhibit great diversity with respect to both their modes of transmission and their effects on their hosts; ranging from horizontally transmitted pathogens and commensals to endosymbionts that are transmitted transovarially (i.e., from mother to offspring). Here we provide the first genome sequence, along with proteomic validation, of an endosymbiotic inherited Spiroplasma bacterium, the Spiroplasma poulsonii MSRO strain harbored by Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of the genome content of S. poulsonii with that of horizontally transmitted spiroplasmas indicates that S. poulsonii has…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Pragia fontium 24613, an environmental bacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae.

The complete genome sequence of Pragia fontium 24613 was determined using PacBio RSII, Roche 454, and SOLiD sequencing. A total of 3,579 genes were predicted, including 3,338 protein-coding sequences and 146 pseudogenes. This is the first whole-genome sequence of a strain belonging to the environmental genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Snopková et al.

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