Candida auris is an emergent yeast pathogen, easily transmissible between patients and with high percent of multidrug resistant strains. Here we present a draft genome sequence of the first known Russian strain of C. auris, isolated from a case of candidemia. The strain clustered within South Asian C. auris clade and seemingly represented an independent event of dissemination from the original species range. Observed fluconazole resistance was probably due to F105L and K143R mutations in ERG11. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.
Updated assembly resource of Phytophthora ramorum Pr102 isolate incorporating long reads from PacBio sequencing.
The NA1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for Sudden Oak Death, an epidemic that has devastated California’s coastal forest ecosystems. An NA1 isolate Pr102 derived from coast live oak in California was previously sequenced and reported with 65 Mb assembly containing 12 Mb gaps in 2576 scaffolds. Here we report an improved 70 Mb genome in 1512 scaffolds with 6752 bp gaps after incorporating PacBio P5-C3 longreads. This assembly contains 19494 gene models (average gene length 2515 bp) compared to 16134 genes (average gene length of 1673 bp) in the previous version. We predicted 29 new RXLRs and 76 new paralogs of a total 392 RXLRs from this assembly. We predicted 35 CRNs compared to 19 in earlier version with six paralogs. Our lncRNAs prediction identified 255 candidates. This new resource will be invaluable for future evolution studies on the invasive plant pathogen.
Convergent evolution of linked mating-type loci in basidiomycetes: an ancient fusion event that has stood the test of time
Sexual development is a key evolutionary innovation of eukaryotes. In many species, mating involves interaction between compatible mating partners that can undergo cell and nuclear fusion and subsequent steps of development including meiosis. Mating compatibility in fungi is governed by mating type determinants, which are localized at mating type (MAT) loci. In basidiomycetes, the ancestral state is hypothesized to be tetrapolar (bifactorial), with two genetically unlinked MAT loci containing homeodomain transcription factor genes (HD locus) and pheromone and pheromone receptor genes (P/R locus), respectively. Alleles at both loci must differ between mating partners for completion of sexual development. However, there are also basidiomycete species with bipolar (unifactorial) mating systems, which can arise through genomic linkage of the HD and P/R loci. In the order Tremellales, which is comprised of mostly yeast-like species, bipolarity is found only in the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species. Here, we describe the analysis of MAT loci from the Trichosporonales, a sister order to the Tremellales. We analyzed genome sequences from 29 strains that belong to 24 species, including two new genome sequences generated in this study. Interestingly, in all of the species analyzed, the MAT loci are fused and a single HD gene is present in each mating type. This is similar to the organization in the pathogenic Cryptococci, which also have linked MAT loci and carry only one HD gene per MAT locus instead of the usual two HD genes found in the vast majority of basidiomycetes. However, the HD and P/R allele combinations in the Trichosporonales are different from those in the pathogenic Cryptococcus species. The differences in allele combinations compared to the bipolar Cryptococci as well as the existence of tetrapolar Tremellales sister species suggest that fusion of the HD and P/R loci and differential loss of one of the two HD genes per MAT allele occurred independently in the Trichosporonales and pathogenic Cryptococci. This finding supports the hypothesis of convergent evolution at the molecular level towards fused mating-type regions in fungi, similar to previous findings in other fungal groups. Unlike the fused MAT loci in several other basidiomycete lineages though, the gene content and gene order within the fused MAT loci are highly conserved in the Trichosporonales, and there is no apparent suppression of recombination extending from the MAT loci to adjacent chromosomal regions, suggesting different mechanisms for the evolution of physically linked MAT loci in these groups.
Evidence of extensive intraspecific noncoding reshuffling in a 169-kb mitochondrial genome of a basidiomycetous fungus
Comparative genomics of fungal mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) have revealed a remarkable pattern of rearrangement between and within major phyla owing to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. The role of recombination was exemplified at a finer evolutionary time scale in basidiomycetes group of fungi as they display a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance patterns. Here, we assembled mitogenomes of six species from the Hymenochaetales order of basidiomycetes and examined 59 mitogenomes from two genetic lineages of Pyrrhoderma noxium. Gene order is largely colinear while intergene regions are major determinants of mitogenome size variation. Substantial sequence divergence was found in shared introns consistent with high HGT frequency observed in yeasts, but we also identified a rare case where an intron was retained in five species since speciation. In contrast to the hyperdiversity observed in nuclear genomes of P. noxium, mitogenomes’ intraspecific polymorphisms at protein coding sequences are extremely low. Phylogeny based on introns revealed turnover as well as exchange of introns between two lineages. Strikingly, some strains harbor a mosaic origin of introns from both lineages. Analysis of intergenic sequence indicated substantial differences between and within lineages, and an expansion may be ongoing as a result of exchange between distal intergenes. These findings suggest that the evolution in mtDNAs is usually lineage specific but chimeric mitotypes are frequently observed, thus capturing the possible evolutionary processes shaping mitogenomes in a basidiomycete. The large mitogenome sizes reported in various basidiomycetes appear to be a result of interspecific reshuffling of intergenes.
Ilyonectria mors-panacis is a serious disease hampering the production of Panax notoginseng, an important Chinese medicinal herb, widely used for its anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue, hepato-protective, and coronary heart disease prevention effects. Here, we report the first Illumina-Pacbio hybrid sequenced draft genome assembly of I. mors-panacis strain G3B and its annotation. The availability of this genome sequence not only represents an important tool toward understanding the genetics behind the infection mechanism of I. mors-panacis strain G3B but also will help illuminate the complexities of the taxonomy of this species.
Puccinia novopanici is an important biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rust disease in switchgrass. Lack of genomic resources for P. novopanici has hampered the progress towards developing effective disease resistance against this pathogen. Therefore, we have sequenced the whole genome of P. novopanici and generated a framework to understand pathogenicity mechanisms, identify effectors, repeat element invasion, genome evolution, and comparative genomics among Puccinia species in the future. Long and short read sequences were generated from P. novopanici genomic DNA by PacBio and Illumina technologies, respectively, and assembled a 99.9 megabase (Mb) genome. Transcripts of P. novopanici were predicted from assembled genome using MAKER and were further validated by RNAseq data. The genome sequence information of P. novopanici will be a valuable resource for researchers working on monocot rusts and plant disease resistance in general.
Genome data of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 and tropical race 4 isolates using long-read sequencing.
Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). We generated two chromosome-level assemblies of Foc race 1 and tropical race 4 strains using single-molecule real-time sequencing. The Foc1 and FocTR4 assemblies had 35 and 29 contigs with contig N50 lengths of 2.08 Mb and 4.28 Mb, respectively. These two new references genomes represent a greater than 100-fold improvement over the contig N50 statistics of the previous short read-based Foc assemblies. The two high-quality assemblies reported here will be a valuable resource for the comparative analysis of Foc races at the pathogenic levels.
Development of high-throughput sequencing techniques have greatly benefited our understanding about microbial ecology; yet the methods producing short reads suffer from species-level resolution and uncertainty of identification. Here we optimize PacBio-based metabarcoding protocols covering the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region) and partial Small Subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene for species-level identification of all eukaryotes, with a specific focus on Fungi (including Glomeromycota) and Stramenopila (particularly Oomycota). Based on tests on composite soil samples and mock communities, we propose best suitable degenerate primers, ITS9munngs + ITS4ngsUni for eukaryotes and selected groups therein and discuss pros and cons of long read-based identification of eukaryotes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Genome sequence resources for four phytopathogenic fungi from the Colletotrichum orbiculare species complex.
Colletotrichum orbiculare species complex fungi are hemibiotrophic plant pathogens that cause anthracnose of field crops and weeds. Members of this group have genomes that are remarkably expanded relative to other Colletotrichum fungi and compartmentalized into AT-rich, gene poor and GC-rich, gene rich regions. Here we present an updated version of the Colletotrichum orbiculare genome, as well as draft genomes of three other members from the C. orbiculare species complex; the alfalfa pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii, the prickly mallow pathogen Colletotrichum sidae and the burweed pathogen Colletotrichum spinosum. The data reported here will be important for comparative genomics analyses to identify factors that play a role in the evolution and maintenance of the expanded, compartmentalized genomes of these fungi which may contribute to their pathogenicity.
Biogeography and Microscale Diversity Shape the Biosynthetic Potential of Fungus-growing Ant-associated Pseudonocardia
The geographic and phylogenetic scale of ecologically relevant microbial diversity is still poorly understood. Using a model mutualism, fungus-growing ants and their defensive bacterial associate Pseudonocardia, we analyzed genetic diversity and biosynthetic potential in 46 strains isolated from ant colonies in a 20km transect near Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Despite an average pairwise core genome similarity of greater than 99%, population genomic analysis revealed several distinct bacterial populations matching ant host geographic distribution. We identified both genetic diversity signatures and divergent genes distinct to each lineage. We also identify natural product biosynthesis clusters specific to isolation locations. These geographic patterns were observable despite the populations living in close proximity to each other and provides evidence of ongoing genetic exchange. Our results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that variation in traits of interest can be found at extremely fine phylogenetic scales.
Centromere-mediated chromosome break drives karyotype evolution in closely related Malassezia species
Intra-chromosomal or inter-chromosomal genomic rearrangements often lead to speciation. Loss or gain of a centromere leads to alterations in chromosome number in closely related species. Thus, centromeres can enable tracing the path of evolution from the ancestral to a derived state. The Malassezia species complex of the phylum Basiodiomycota shows remarkable diversity in chromosome number ranging between six and nine chromosomes. To understand these transitions, we experimentally identified all eight centromeres as binding sites of an evolutionarily conserved outer kinetochore protein Mis12/Mtw1 in M. sympodialis. The 3 to 5 kb centromere regions share an AT-rich, poorly transcribed core region enriched with a 12 bp consensus motif. We also mapped nine such AT-rich centromeres in M. globosa and the related species Malassezia restricta and Malassezia slooffiae. While eight predicted centromeres were found within conserved synteny blocks between these species and M. sympodialis, the remaining centromere in M. globosa (MgCEN2) or its orthologous centromere in M. slooffiae (MslCEN4) and M. restricta (MreCEN8) mapped to a synteny breakpoint compared with M. sympodialis. Taken together, we provide evidence that breakage and loss of a centromere (CEN2) in an ancestral Malassezia species possessing nine chromosomes resulted in fewer chromosomes in M. sympodialis. Strikingly, the predicted centromeres of all closely related Malassezia species map to an AT-rich core on each chromosome that also shows enrichment of the 12 bp sequence motif. We propose that centromeres are fragile AT-rich sites driving karyotype diversity through breakage and inactivation in these and other species.
Haplotype-phased genome assembly of virulent Phythophthora ramorum isolate ND886 facilitated by long-read sequencing reveals effector polymorphisms and copy number variation.
Phytophthora ramorum is a destructive pathogen that causes Sudden Oak Death. The genome sequence of P. ramorum isolate Pr102 was previously produced using Sanger reads, and contained 12 Mb of gaps. However, isolate Pr102 had shown reduced aggressiveness and genome abnormalities. In order to produce an improved genome assembly for P. ramorum, we performed long read sequencing of highly aggressive P. ramorum isolate CDFA1418886 (abbreviated as ND886). We generated a 60.5 Mb assembly of the ND886 genome using the Pacific Biosciences sequencing platform. The assembly includes 302 primary contigs (60.2 Mb) and 9 unplaced contigs (265 Kb). Additionally, we found a “Highly repetitive” component from the Pacbio unassembled unmapped reads containing tandem repeats that are not part of the 60.5 Mb genome. The overall repeat content in the primary assembly was much higher than the Pr102 Sanger version (48% vs. 29%) indicating that the long reads have captured repetitive regions effectively. The 302 primary contigs were phased into 345 haplotype blocks and 222,892 phased variants, of which the longest phased block was 1,513,201 bp with 7,265 phased variants. The improved phased assembly facilitated identification of 21 and 25 Crinkler effectors and 393 and 394 RXLR effector genes from two haplotypes. Of these, 24 and 25 RXLR effectors were newly predicted from Haplotype A and Haplotype B, respectively. In addition, 7 new paralogs of effector Avh207 were found in contig 54, not reported earlier. Comparison of the ND886 assembly with Pr102 V1 assembly suggests that several repeat-rich smaller scaffolds within the Pr102 V1 assembly were possibly misassembled; these regions are fully encompassed now in ND886 contigs. Our analysis further reveals that Pr102 is a heterokaryon with multiple nuclear types in the sequences corresponding to contig 10 of ND886 assembly.
Meiotic drive is the preferential transmission of a particular allele during sexual reproduction. The phenomenon is observed as spore killing in multiple fungi. In natural populations of Podospora anserina, seven spore killer types (Psks) have been identified through classical genetic analyses. Here we show that the Spok gene family underlies the Psks. The combination of Spok genes at different chromosomal locations defines the spore killer types and creates a killing hierarchy within a population. We identify two novel Spok homologs located within a large (74-167 kbp) region (the Spok block) that resides in different chromosomal locations in different strains. We confirm that the SPOK protein performs both killing and resistance functions and show that these activities are dependent on distinct domains, a predicted nuclease and kinase domain. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses across ascomycetes suggest that the Spok genes disperse through cross-species transfer, and evolve by duplication and diversification within lineages. © 2019, Vogan et al.
We present a high-quality draft genome assembly for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Fusarium odoratissimum), assembled from PacBio reads and consisting of 15 contigs with a total assembly size of 48.59?Mb. This strain appears to belong to vegetative compatibility group complex 01213/16.Copyright © 2019 Warmington et al.
Draft Genome Sequence of Dicyma pulvinata Strain 414-3, a Mycoparasite of Cladosporium fulvum, Causal Agent of Tomato Leaf Mold.
Dicyma pulvinata strain 414-3, isolated from the surface of a tomato leaf, is a mycoparasitic fungus of Cladosporium fulvum, which causes leaf mold of tomato. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain 414-3, which will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the mycoparasitism.Copyright © 2019 Sushida et al.