A report on the 10(th) plant genome meeting entitled ‘Plant genomes and biotechnology: from genes to networks’, held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2-5 December, 2015.
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt of potato. Ralstonia solanacearum strain UY031 belongs to the American phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, also classified as race 3 biovar 2. Here we report the completely sequenced genome of this strain, the first complete genome for phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, and the fourth for the R. solanacearum species complex. In addition to standard genome annotation, we have carried out a curated annotation of type III effector genes, an important pathogenicity-related class of genes for this organism. We identified 60 effector genes, and observed that this effector repertoire is distinct when compared to those from other phylotype IIB strains. Eleven of the effectors appear to be nonfunctional due to disruptive mutations. We also report a methylome analysis of this genome, the first for a R. solanacearum strain. This analysis helped us note the presence of a toxin gene within a region of probable phage origin, raising the hypothesis that this gene may play a role in this strain’s virulence.
Sequencing plant genomes are often challenging because of their complex architecture and high content of repetitive sequences. Sugarcane has one of the most complex genomes. It is highly polyploid, preserves intact homeologous chromosomes from its parental species and contains >55% repetitive sequences. Although bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have emerged as an alternative for accessing the sugarcane genome, sequencing individual clones is laborious and expensive. Here, we present a strategy for sequencing and assembly reads produced from the DNA of pooled BAC clones. A set of 178 BAC clones, randomly sampled from the SP80-3280 sugarcane BAC library, was pooled and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio platforms. A hybrid assembly strategy was used to generate 2,451 scaffolds comprising 19.2 MB of assembled genome sequence. Scaffolds of =20 Kb corresponded to 80% of the assembled sequences, and the full sequences of forty BACs were recovered in one or two contigs. Alignment of the BAC scaffolds with the chromosome sequences of sorghum showed a high degree of collinearity and gene order. The alignment of the BAC scaffolds to the 10 sorghum chromosomes suggests that the genome of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety is ~19% contracted in relation to the sorghum genome. In conclusion, our data show that sequencing pools composed of high numbers of BAC clones may help to construct a reference scaffold map of the sugarcane genome.
We announce the complete genome sequence ofBacillussp. strain SDLI1, isolated from larval gut of the stingless beeScaptotrigona depilis The 4.13-Mb circular chromosome harbors biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2016 Paludo et al.
Genome sequence of the piezophilic, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T.
The complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio indicus J2T, a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway.
Understanding the genetics of APOE and TOMM40 and role of mitochondrial structure and function in clinical pharmacology of Alzheimer’s disease.
The methodology of Genome-Wide Association Screening (GWAS) has been applied for more than a decade. Translation to clinical utility has been limited, especially in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). It has become standard practice in the analyses of more than two dozen AD GWAS studies to exclude the apolipoprotein E (APOE) region because of its extraordinary statistical support, unique thus far in complex human diseases. New genes associated with AD are proposed frequently based on SNPs associated with odds ratio (OR) < 1.2. Most of these SNPs are not located within the associated gene exons or introns but are located variable distances away. Often pathologic hypotheses for these genes are presented, with little or no experimental support. By eliminating the analyses of the APOE-TOMM40 linkage disequilibrium region, the relationship and data of several genes that are co-located in that LD region have been largely ignored. Early negative interpretations limited the interest of understanding the genetic data derived from GWAS, particularly regarding the TOMM40 gene. This commentary describes the history and problem(s) in interpretation of the genetic interrogation of the "APOE" region and provides insight into a metabolic mitochondrial basis for the etiology of AD using both APOE and TOMM40 genetics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Genomic organization of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) T cell receptor alpha/delta locus and analysis of expressed products.
In testing the hypothesis that all jawed vertebrate classes employ immunoglobulin heavy chain V (IgHV) gene segments in their T cell receptor (TCR)d encoding loci, we found that some basic characterization was required of zebrafish TCRd. We began by annotating and characterizing the TCRa/d locus of Danio rerio based on the most recent genome assembly, GRCz10. We identified a total of 141 theoretically functional V segments which we grouped into 41 families based upon 70 % nucleotide identity. This number represents the second greatest count of apparently functional V genes thus far described in an antigen receptor locus with the exception of cattle TCRa/d. Cloning, relative quantitative PCR, and deep sequencing results corroborate that zebrafish do express TCRd, but these data suggest only at extremely low levels and in limited diversity in the spleens of the adult fish. While we found no evidence for IgH-TCRd rearrangements in this fish, by determining the locus organization we were able to suggest how the evolution of the teleost a/d locus could have lost IgHVs that exist in sharks and frogs. We also found evidence of surprisingly low TCRd expression and repertoire diversity in this species.
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat, further complicated by unexplained treatment failures caused by bacteria that appear antibiotic susceptible. We describe an Enterobacter cloacae isolate harbouring a minor subpopulation that is highly resistant to the last-line antibiotic colistin. This subpopulation was distinct from persisters, became predominant in colistin, returned to baseline after colistin removal and was dependent on the histidine kinase PhoQ. During murine infection, but in the absence of colistin, innate immune defences led to an increased frequency of the resistant subpopulation, leading to inefficacy of subsequent colistin therapy. An isolate with a lower-frequency colistin-resistant subpopulation similarly caused treatment failure but was misclassified as susceptible by current diagnostics once cultured outside the host. These data demonstrate the ability of low-frequency bacterial subpopulations to contribute to clinically relevant antibiotic resistance, elucidating an enigmatic cause of antibiotic treatment failure and highlighting the critical need for more sensitive diagnostics.
Genome sequence of the multiantibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain C68 and insights on the pLRM23 colonization plasmid.
Enterococcus faecium infections are a rising concern in hospital settings. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonize the gastrointestinal tract and replace nonresistant strains, complicating the treatment of debilitated patients. Here, we present a polished genome of the multiantibiotic-resistant strain C68, which was obtained as a clinical isolate and is a useful experimental strain. Copyright © 2016 García-Solache and Rice.
We report here the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter asburiae strain ENIPBJ-CG1, isolated from a bone marrow transplant patient. The size of the genome sequence is approximately 4.65 Mb, with a G+C content of 55.76%, and it is predicted to contain 4,790 protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2016 Liu et al.
Draft genome sequences of two strains of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus with the ability to degrade lignocellulose.
Paenibacillus glucanolyticus 5162, a bacterium isolated from soil, and Paenibacillus glucanolyticus SLM1, a bacterium isolated from pulp mill waste, can utilize cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as sole carbon sources for growth. These two strains of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus were sequenced using PacBio and Illumina MiSeq technologies. Copyright © 2016 Mathews et al.
Complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate obtained from a Mexican hospital (sequence type 422).
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen, particularly for severely ill patients in intensive care units and patients with hematologic malignancies. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate, recovered from a Mexican hospital and classified as sequence type 422 according to the multilocus sequence typing Pasteur scheme. Copyright © 2016 Castro-Jaimes et al.
We report here the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain RTd22, an endophytic actinobacterium that was isolated from the roots of the Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia The bacterium’s 11.1-Mb linear chromosome is predicted to encode a large number of unknown natural products. Copyright © 2016 Chagas et al.
Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic and piezophilic archeon Thermococcus Piezophilus CDGST, able to grow under extreme hydrostatic pressures
We report the genome sequence of Thermococcus superprofundus strain CDGS(T), a new piezophilic and hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermococcales isolated from the world’s deepest hydrothermal vents, at the Mid-Cayman Rise. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic, and piezophilic lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 Dalmasso et al.
Homologous recombination within large chromosomal regions facilitates acquisition of beta-lactam and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium.
The transfer of DNA between Enterococcus faecium strains has been characterized by both the movement of well-defined genetic elements and by the large-scale transfer of genomic DNA fragments. In this work we report on the whole genome analysis of transconjugants resulting from mating events between the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium C68 strain and vancomycin susceptible D344RRF to discern the mechanism by which the transferred regions enter the recipient chromosome. Vancomycin-resistant transconjugants from five independent matings were analysed by whole genome sequencing. In all cases but one, the penicillin binding protein 5 gene (pbp5) and the Tn5382-vancomycin resistance transposon were transferred together and replaced the corresponding pbp5 region of D344RRF. In one instance, Tn5382 inserted independently downstream of the D344RRF pbp5 Single nucleotide variants (SNV) analysis suggests that entry of donor DNA into the recipient chromosome occurred by recombination across regions of homology between donor and recipient chromosomes, rather than through insertion sequence-mediated transposition. Transfer of genomic DNA was also associated with transfer of C68 plasmid pLRM23 and another putative plasmid. Our data are consistent with transfer initiated by a cointegration of a transferable plasmid with the donor chromosome, with subsequent circularization of the plasmid/chromosome cointegrate in the donor prior to transfer. Entry into the recipient chromosome occurs most commonly across regions of homology between donor and recipient chromosomes. Copyright © 2016 García-Solache et al.