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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic organization of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) T cell receptor alpha/delta locus and analysis of expressed products.

In testing the hypothesis that all jawed vertebrate classes employ immunoglobulin heavy chain V (IgHV) gene segments in their T cell receptor (TCR)d encoding loci, we found that some basic characterization was required of zebrafish TCRd. We began by annotating and characterizing the TCRa/d locus of Danio rerio based on the most recent genome assembly, GRCz10. We identified a total of 141 theoretically functional V segments which we grouped into 41 families based upon 70 % nucleotide identity. This number represents the second greatest count of apparently functional V genes thus far described in an antigen receptor locus with the exception…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Long single-molecule reads can resolve the complexity of the influenza virus composed of rare, closely related mutant variants

As a result of a high rate of mutations and recombination events, an RNA-virus exists as a heterogeneous “swarm” of mutant variants. The long read length offered by single-molecule sequencing technologies allows each mutant variant to be sequenced in a single pass. However, high error rate limits the ability to reconstruct heterogeneous viral population composed of rare, related mutant variants. In this paper, we present 2SNV, a method able to tolerate the high error-rate of the single-molecule protocol and reconstruct mutant variants. 2SNV uses linkage between single nucleotide variations to efficiently distinguish them from read errors. To benchmark the sensitivity…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Microsatellite length scoring by Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing – Effects of sequence structure and PCR regime.

Microsatellites are DNA sequences consisting of repeated, short (1-6 bp) sequence motifs that are highly mutable by enzymatic slippage during replication. Due to their high intrinsic variability, microsatellites have important applications in population genetics, forensics, genome mapping, as well as cancer diagnostics and prognosis. The current analytical standard for microsatellites is based on length scoring by high precision electrophoresis, but due to increasing efficiency next-generation sequencing techniques may provide a viable alternative. Here, we evaluated single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing, implemented in the PacBio series of sequencing apparatuses, as a means of microsatellite length scoring. To this end we…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Privacy-preserving read mapping using locality sensitive hashing and secure kmer voting

The recent explosion in the amount of available genome sequencing data imposes high computational demands on the tools designed to analyze it. Low-cost cloud computing has the potential to alleviate this burden. However, moving personal genome data analysis to the cloud raises serious privacy concerns. Read alignment is a critical and computationally intensive first step of most genomic data analysis pipelines. While significant effort has been dedicated to optimize the sensitivity and runtime efficiency of this step, few approaches have addressed outsourcing this computation securely to an untrusted party. The few secure solutions that have been proposed either do not…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Conservation genetics of an endangered grassland butterfly (Oarisma poweshiek) reveals historically high gene flow despite recent and rapid range loss

1. In poorly dispersing species gene flow can be facilitated when suitable habitat is widespread, allowing for increased dispersal between neighbouring locations. The Poweshiek skipperling [Oarisma poweshiek (Parker)], a federally endangered butterfly, has undergone a rapid, recent demographic decline following the loss of tallgrass prairie and fen habitats range wide. The loss of habitat, now restricted geographic range, and poor dispersal ability have left O. poweshiek at increased risk of extinction. 2. We studied the population genetics of six remaining populations of O. poweshiek in order to test the hypothesis that gene flow was historically high despite limited long-distance dispersal…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Probabilistic viral quasispecies assembly

Viruses are pathogens that cause infectious diseases. The swarm of virions is subject to the host’s immune pressure and possibly antiviral therapy. It may escape this selective pressure and gain selective advantage by acquiring one or more of the genomic alterations: single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), loss or gain of one or more amino acids, large deletions, for example, due to alternative splicing, or recombination of different strains. Genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing is performed via sequencing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies revolutionized assessing viral genetic diversity experimentally. In viral quasispecies analysis, there are two main goals: the identification of low-frequency variants and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Capturing pairwise and multi-way chromosomal conformations using chromosomal walks.

Chromosomes are folded into highly compacted structures to accommodate physical constraints within nuclei and to regulate access to genomic information. Recently, global mapping of pairwise contacts showed that loops anchoring topological domains (TADs) are highly conserved between cell types and species. Whether pairwise loops synergize to form higher-order structures is still unclear. Here we develop a conformation capture assay to study higher-order organization using chromosomal walks (C-walks) that link multiple genomic loci together into proximity chains in human and mouse cells. This approach captures chromosomal structure at varying scales. Inter-chromosomal contacts constitute only 7-10% of the pairs and are restricted…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

MICADo – Looking for mutations in targeted PacBio cancer data: an alignment-free method.

Targeted sequencing is commonly used in clinical application of NGS technology since it enables generation of sufficient sequencing depth in the targeted genes of interest and thus ensures the best possible downstream analysis. This notwithstanding, the accurate discovery and annotation of disease causing mutations remains a challenging problem even in such favorable context. The difficulty is particularly salient in the case of third generation sequencing technology, such as PacBio. We present MICADo, a de Bruijn graph based method, implemented in python, that makes possible to distinguish between patient specific mutations and other alterations for targeted sequencing of a cohort of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

TeloPCR-seq: a high-throughput sequencing approach for telomeres.

We have developed a high-throughput sequencing approach that enables us to determine terminal telomere sequences from tens of thousands of individual Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomeres. This method provides unprecedented coverage of telomeric sequence complexity in fission yeast. S. pombe telomeres are composed of modular degenerate repeats that can be explained by variation in usage of the TER1 RNA template during reverse transcription. Taking advantage of this deep sequencing approach, we find that ‘like’ repeat modules are highly correlated within individual telomeres. Moreover, repeat module preference varies with telomere length, suggesting that existing repeats promote the incorporation of like repeats and/or that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Efficient, cost-effective, high-throughput, Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST) method, NGMLST, and the analytical software program MLSTEZ.

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has become the preferred method for genotyping many biological species. It can be used to identify major phylogenetic clades, molecular groups, or subpopulations of a species, as well as individual strains or clones. However, conventional MLST is costly and time consuming, which limits its power for genotyping large numbers of samples. Here, we describe a new MLST method that uses next-generation sequencing, a multiplexing protocol, and appropriate analytical software to provide accurate, rapid, and economical MLST genotyping of 96 or more isolates in a single assay.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Enhancing the accuracy of next-generation sequencing for detecting rare and subclonal mutations.

Mutations, the fuel of evolution, are first manifested as rare DNA changes within a population of cells. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized the study of genomic variation between species and individual organisms, most have limited ability to accurately detect and quantify rare variants among the different genome copies in heterogeneous mixtures of cells or molecules. We describe the technical challenges in characterizing subclonal variants using conventional NGS protocols and the recent development of error correction strategies, both computational and experimental, including consensus sequencing of single DNA molecules. We also highlight major applications for low-frequency mutation detection in science…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Clustering of circular consensus sequences: accurate error correction and assembly of single molecule real-time reads from multiplexed amplicon libraries.

Targeted resequencing with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms can be used to efficiently interrogate the genomes of large numbers of individuals. A critical issue for research and applications using HTS data, especially from long-read platforms, is error in base calling arising from technological limits and bioinformatic algorithms. We found that the community standard long amplicon analysis (LAA) module from Pacific Biosciences is prone to substantial bioinformatic errors that raise concerns about findings based on this pipeline, prompting the need for a new method.A single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing-error correction and assembly pipeline, C3S-LAA, was developed for libraries of pooled amplicons. By…

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Monday, January 23, 2017

Tutorial: Circular Consensus Sequence analysis application

This tutorial provides an overview of the Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) analysis application. The CCS algorithm is used in applications that require distinguishing closely related DNA molecules in the same sample. Applications of CCS include profiling microbial communities, resolving viral populations and accurately identifying somatic variations within heterogeneous tumor cells.

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