Viruses are pathogens that cause infectious diseases. The swarm of virions is subject to the host's immune pressure and possibly antiviral therapy. It may escape this selective pressure and gain selective advantage by acquiring one or more of the genomic alterations: single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), loss or gain of one or more amino acids, large deletions, for example, due to alternative splicing, or recombination of different strains. Genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing is performed via sequencing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies revolutionized assessing viral genetic diversity experimentally. In viral quasispecies analysis, there are two main goals: the identification of low-frequency variants and haplotype assembly on a whole-genome scale. PacBio performs single-molecule sequencing. This chapter elaborates human haplotyping and its relationship to probabilistic viral haplotype reconstruction methods. Viral quasispecies assembly has the potential to replace the current de facto diversity estimation by SNV calling. With advances in library preparation, increasing sensitivity of sequencing platforms, and more sophisticated models, it might be possible to detect all or most viral strains in a single individual.
Journal: Computational methods for next generation sequencing data analysis