July 19, 2019  |  

Detection and whole genome sequencing of carbapenemase-producing Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from routine perirectal surveillance culture.

Perirectal surveillance cultures and a stool culture grew Aeromonas species from three patients over a six-week period without epidemiological links. Detection of the blaKPC-2 gene in one isolate prompted inclusion of non-Enterobacteriaceae in our surveillance culture workup. Whole genome sequencing confirmed isolates were unrelated, and provided data for Aeromonas reference genomes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 19, 2019  |  

Comprehensive genome analysis of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp.: new insights into phylogeny, population structure and resistance mechanisms.

Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed blaKPC-2, 40 had blaKPC-3, 2 had blaKPC-4, and 2 had blaNDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the blaKPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this genus.Enterobacter spp., especially carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp., have emerged as a clinically significant cause of nosocomial infections. However, only limited information is available on the distribution of carbapenem resistance across this genus. Augmenting this problem is an erroneous identification of Enterobacter strains because of ambiguous typing methods and imprecise taxonomy. In this study, we used a whole-genome-based comparative phylogenetic approach to (i) revisit and redefine the genus Enterobacter and (ii) unravel the emergence and evolution of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-harboring Enterobacter spp. Using genomic analysis of 447 sequenced strains, we developed an improved understanding of the species designations within this complex genus and identified the diverse mechanisms driving the molecular evolution of carbapenem resistance. The findings in this study provide a solid genomic framework that will serve as an important resource in the future development of molecular diagnostics and in supporting drug discovery programs. Copyright © 2016 Chavda et al.


July 19, 2019  |  

Chromosomal integration of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene, blaKPC, in Klebsiella species is elusive but not rare.

Carbapenemase genes in Enterobacteriaceae are mostly described as being plasmid associated. However, the genetic context of carbapenemase genes is not always confirmed in epidemiological surveys, and the frequency of their chromosomal integration therefore is unknown. A previously sequenced collection of blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from a single U.S. institution (2007 to 2012; n = 281 isolates from 182 patients) was analyzed to identify chromosomal insertions of Tn4401, the transposon most frequently harboring blaKPC Using a combination of short- and long-read sequencing, we confirmed five independent chromosomal integration events from 6/182 (3%) patients, corresponding to 15/281 (5%) isolates. Three patients had isolates identified by perirectal screening, and three had infections which were all successfully treated. When a single copy of blaKPC was in the chromosome, one or both of the phenotypic carbapenemase tests were negative. All chromosomally integrated blaKPC genes were from Klebsiella spp., predominantly K. pneumoniae clonal group 258 (CG258), even though these represented only a small proportion of the isolates. Integration occurred via IS15-?I-mediated transposition of a larger, composite region encompassing Tn4401 at one locus of chromosomal integration, seen in the same strain (K. pneumoniae ST340) in two patients. In summary, we identified five independent chromosomal integrations of blaKPC in a large outbreak, demonstrating that this is not a rare event. blaKPC was more frequently integrated into the chromosome of epidemic CG258 K. pneumoniae lineages (ST11, ST258, and ST340) and was more difficult to detect by routine phenotypic methods in this context. The presence of chromosomally integrated blaKPC within successful, globally disseminated K. pneumoniae strains therefore is likely underestimated. Copyright © 2017 Mathers et al.


July 19, 2019  |  

Genomic epidemiology of global Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Escherichia coli.

The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli has major implications for the management of common infections. bla KPC, encoding a transmissible carbapenemase (KPC), has historically largely been associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant plasmid (pKpQIL), and a specific transposable element (Tn4401, ~10?kb). Here we characterize the genetic features of bla KPC emergence in global E. coli, 2008-2013, using both long- and short-read whole-genome sequencing. Amongst 43/45 successfully sequenced bla KPC-E. coli strains, we identified substantial strain diversity (n?=?21 sequence types, 18% of annotated genes in the core genome); substantial plasmid diversity (=9 replicon types); and substantial bla KPC-associated, mobile genetic element (MGE) diversity (50% not within complete Tn4401 elements). We also found evidence of inter-species, regional and international plasmid spread. In several cases bla KPC was found on high copy number, small Col-like plasmids, previously associated with horizontal transmission of resistance genes in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressures. E. coli is a common human pathogen, but also a commensal in multiple environmental and animal reservoirs, and easily transmissible. The association of bla KPC with a range of MGEs previously linked to the successful spread of widely endemic resistance mechanisms (e.g. bla TEM, bla CTX-M) suggests that it may become similarly prevalent.


July 7, 2019  |  

First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland.

The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland.Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March 2015 from different retail shops specializing in Asian food. The vegetables included basil leaves, bergamont leaves, coriander, curry leaves, eggplant and okra (marrow). Samples had been imported from Thailand, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and India. After an initial enrichment-step, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from two carbapenem-containing selective media (SUPERCARBA II and Brilliance CRE Agar). Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of bla KPC, bla NDM, bla OXA-48-like and bla VIM. An OXA-181-producing Klebsiella variicola was isolated in a coriander sample with origin Thailand/Vietnam. The bla OXA-181 gene was encoded in a 14’027 bp region flanked by two IS26-like elements on a 51-kb IncX3-type plasmid.The results of this study suggest that the international production and trade of fresh vegetables constitute a possible route for the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of carbapenemase-producing organisms in the food supply is alarming and an important food safety issue.


July 7, 2019  |  

Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a university hospital in Nepal reveals the emergence of a novel epidemic clonal lineage.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious medical problem worldwide. To clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from a medical setting in Nepal, 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from different patients were screened for MDR A. baumannii by antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Whole genomes of the MDR A. baumannii isolates were sequenced by MiSeq™ (Illumina), and the complete genome of one isolate (IOMTU433) was sequenced by PacBio RS II. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. Of the 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, 122 (49.6%) were MDR A. baumannii, with the majority being resistant to aminoglycosides, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones but not to colistin and tigecycline. These isolates harboured the 16S rRNA methylase gene armA as well as bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-23) or bla(OXA-58). MDR A. baumannii isolates belonging to clonal complex 1 (CC1) and CC2 as well as a novel clonal complex (CC149) have spread throughout a medical setting in Nepal. The MDR isolates harboured genes encoding carbapenemases (OXA and NDM-1) and a 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Clonal dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 in the upper midwestern United States.

Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583-1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening CP-CRE from patients throughout Minnesota. Here, we analyzed a retrospective group of CP-E. cloacae isolates (n = 34) collected between 2009 and 2013. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that 32 of the strains were clonal, belonging to the ST171 clonal complex and differing collectively by 211 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and it revealed a dynamic clone under positive selection. The phylogeography of these strains suggests that this clone existed in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota prior to 2009 and subsequently was identified in the Minneapolis and St. Paul metropolitan area. All strains harbored identical IncFIA-like plasmids conferring a CP-CRE phenotype and an additional IncX3 plasmid. In a single patient with multiple isolates submitted over several months, we found evidence that these plasmids had transferred from the E. cloacae clone to an Escherichia coli ST131 bacterium, rendering it as a CP-CRE. The spread of this clone throughout the upper midwestern United States is unprecedented for E. cloacae and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to identify such threats to human health. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic epidemiology of an endoscope-associated outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae.

Increased incidence of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) was noted among patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) at a single hospital. An epidemiologic investigation identified KPC-Kp and non-KPC-producing, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Kp in cultures from 2 endoscopes. Genotyping was performed on patient and endoscope isolates to characterize the microbial genomics of the outbreak. Genetic similarity of 51 Kp isolates from 37 patients and 3 endoscopes was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Five patient and 2 endoscope isolates underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS). Two KPC-encoding plasmids were characterized by single molecule, real-time sequencing. Plasmid diversity was assessed by endonuclease digestion. Genomic and epidemiologic data were used in conjunction to investigate the outbreak source. Two clusters of Kp patient isolates were genetically related to endoscope isolates by PFGE. A subset of patient isolates were collected post-ERCP, suggesting ERCP endoscopes as a possible source. A phylogeny of 7 Kp genomes from patient and endoscope isolates supported ERCP as a potential source of transmission. Differences in gene content defined 5 ST258 subclades and identified 2 of the subclades as outbreak-associated. A novel KPC-encoding plasmid, pKp28 helped define and track one endoscope-associated ST258 subclade. WGS demonstrated high genetic relatedness of patient and ERCP endoscope isolates suggesting ERCP-associated transmission of ST258 KPC-Kp. Gene and plasmid content discriminated the outbreak from endemic ST258 populations and assisted with the molecular epidemiologic investigation of an extended KPC-Kp outbreak.


July 7, 2019  |  

Molecular characterization using next generation sequencing of plasmids containing blaNDM-7 in Enterobacteriaceae from Calgary, Canada.

Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is relatively uncommon and had previously been described in Europe, India, USA and Japan. This study describes the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae [Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), Escherichia coli (n=2), Serratia marcescens (n=1), Enterobacter hormaechei (n=1)] with blaNDM-7 obtained in 4 patients from Calgary, Canada during 2013-4. The 46,161 bp IncX3 plasmids with blaNDM-7 are highly similar to other blaNDM-harboring IncX3 plasmids and interestingly, showed identical structures within the different isolates. This finding may indicate horizontal transmission within our health region or may indicate contact with individuals from endemic areas within the hospital setting. Patients infected or colonized with bacteria containing blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids will generate infection control challenges. Epidemiological and molecular studies are required to better understand the dynamics of transmission, risk factors and reservoirs for bacteria harboring blaNDM-7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. marcescens, and E. hormaechei with blaNDM-7. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: tracking molecular epidemiology and outcomes through a regional network.

Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. To this end, predefined clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded and K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed for strain typing and resistance mechanism determination. In a 14-month period, 251 patients were included. While most of the patients were admitted from long-term care settings, 28% of them were admitted from home. Hospitalizations were prolonged and complicated. Nonsusceptibility to colistin and tigecycline occurred in isolates from 7 and 45% of the patients, respectively. Most of the CR K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) types A and B (both sequence type 258) and carried either blaKPC-2 (48%) or blaKPC-3 (51%). One isolate tested positive for blaNDM-1, a sentinel discovery in this region. Important differences between strain types were noted; rep-PCR type B strains were associated with blaKPC-3 (odds ratio [OR], 294; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 2,552; P < 0.001), gentamicin nonsusceptibility (OR, 24; 95% CI, 8.39 to 79.38; P < 0.001), amikacin susceptibility (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 3.21 to 42.42; P < 0.001), tigecycline nonsusceptibility (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 36.41; P = 0.018), a shorter length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.00; P = 0.043), and admission from a skilled-nursing facility (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.26 to 8.08; P = 0.013). Our analysis shows that (i) CR K. pneumoniae is seen primarily in the elderly long-term care population and that (ii) regional monitoring of CR K. pneumoniae reveals insights into molecular characteristics. This work highlights the crucial role of ongoing surveillance of carbapenem resistance determinants. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infections in China: a multicentre longitudinal study.

Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China.Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification. We subjected mcr-1-positive isolates to genotyping, susceptibility testing, and clinical data analysis. We established the genetic location of mcr-1 with Southern blot hybridisation, and we analysed plasmids containing mcr-1 with filter mating, electroporation, and DNA sequencing.2066 isolates, consisting of 1495 E coli isolates and 571 K pneumoniae isolates were collected. Of the 1495 E coli isolates, 20 (1%) were mcr-1-positive, whereas we detected only one (<1%) mcr-1-positive isolate among the 571 K pneumoniae isolates. All mcr-1-positive E coli and K pneumoniae isolates were resistant to colistin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations values in the range of 4-32 mg/L, except for one E coli isolate that had a minimum inhibitory concentration less than or equal to 0·06 mg/L. All 21 mcr-1-positive isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and 20 isolates (95%) were susceptible to the carbapenem and ß-lactamase inhibitor combination piperacillin and tazobactam. One mcr-1-positive E coli isolate also produced NDM-5, which confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The 21 mcr-1-positive isolates were clonally diverse and carried mcr-1 on two types of plasmids, a 33 kb IncX4 plasmid and a 61 kb Inc12 plasmid. The 30 day mortality of the patients with bloodstream infections caused by mcr-1-positive isolates was zero.mcr-1-positive isolates from bloodstream infections were rare, sporadic, and remained susceptible to many antimicrobial agents. E coli, rather than K pneumoniae, was the main host of the mcr-1 gene. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical impact of this novel resistance gene.National Natural Science Foundation of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

First report of blaOXA-499 as a carbapenemase gene from Acinetobacter pittii.

We identified the carbapenemase gene blaOXA-499, a variant of blaOXA-143 from a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter pittii for the first time. OXA-499 shared 93.1% amino acid identity with OXA-143 and the gene was located on the chromosome. By cloning the OXA-499 encoding gene into the pWH1266 vector and transforming into susceptible Acinetobacter spp, we were able to show that OXA-499 confers resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Virulence and genomic feature of a virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 strain of serotype K2 harboring blaNDM-5 in China.

The objective of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in carbapenem resistance and virulence of a K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate 24835. The virulence of the strain was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole-genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the carbapenem resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae 24835. Strain 24835 was highly resistant to carbapenems and belonged to ST14, exhibited hypermucoviscous and unique K2-aerobactin-kfu-rmpA positive phenotype. As the only carbapenemase gene in strain 24835, blaNDM-5 was located on a 46-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is a very close relation of pNDM-MGR194 from India. Genetic context of blaNDM-5 in strain 24835 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in K. pneumoniae 24835. Significantly increased resistance to serum killing and mice mortality were found in the virulent New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing K. pneumoniae strain compared to the other NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Our study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of K. pneumoniae 24835, a strain displaying carbapenem resistance and relatively high level of virulence. These findings are concerning for the potential of NDM-like genes to disseminate among virulent K. pneumoniae isolates.


July 7, 2019  |  

A nosocomial outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates containing blaOXA-237 encoded on a plasmid.

Carbapenem antibiotics are among the mainstay for treating infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, especially in the Northwest United States where carbapenem resistant A. baumannii remain relatively rare. However, between June 2012 and October 2014, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii occurred in 16 patients from 5 healthcare facilities in the state of Oregon. All isolates were defined as extensively-drug resistant (XDR). MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to sequence type 2 (international clone 2, IC2), and were greater than 95% similar by rep-PCR analysis. Multiplex PCR revealed the presence of a blaOXA carbapenemase gene, later identified as blaOXA-237 Whole genome sequencing of all isolates revealed a well-supported separate branch within a global A. baumannii phylogeny. Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) SMRT sequencing was also performed on one isolate to gain insight into the genetic location of the carbapenem resistance gene. We discovered that blaOXA-237, flanked on either side by ISAba1 elements in opposite orientations, was carried by a 15,198 bp plasmid designated pORAB01-3, and was present in all 16 isolates. The plasmid also contained genes encoding for: a TonB-dependent receptor, septicolysin, a type IV secretory system conjugative DNA transfer family protein, an integrase, a RepB family plasmid DNA replication initiator protein, an a/ß hydrolase, and a BrnT/BrnA type II toxin-antitoxin system. This is the first reported outbreak associated with this specific carbapenemase. Particularly worrisome is that blaOXA-237 was plasmid encoded and found in the most prominent worldwide clonal group IC2, potentially giving pORAB01-3 great capacity for future widespread dissemination. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

MCR-1 and OXA-48 in vivo acquisition in KPC-producing Escherichia coli after colistin treatment.

The spread of mcr-1-encoding plasmids into carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae raises concerns about the emergence of untreatable bacteria. We report the acquisition of mcr-1 in a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strain after a 3-week course of colistin in a patient repatriated to France from Portugal. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing E. coli strain acquired two plasmids, an IncL OXA-48-encoding plasmid and an IncX4 mcr-1-encoding plasmid. This is the first report of mcr-1 in carbapenemase-encoding bacteria in France. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.