September 22, 2019  |  

Flow cytometry analysis of Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598 populations exhibiting different phenotypes induced by changes in cultivation conditions.

Biobutanol production by clostridia via the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) pathway is a promising future technology in bioenergetics , but identifying key regulatory mechanisms for this pathway is essential in order to construct industrially relevant strains with high tolerance and productivity. We have applied flow cytometric analysis to C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598 and carried out comparative screening of physiological changes in terms of viability under different cultivation conditions to determine its dependence on particular stages of the life cycle and the concentration of butanol.Dual staining by propidium iodide (PI) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) provided separation of cells into four subpopulations with different abilities to take up PI and cleave CFDA, reflecting different physiological states. The development of a staining pattern during ABE fermentation showed an apparent decline in viability, starting at the pH shift and onset of solventogenesis, although an appreciable proportion of cells continued to proliferate. This was observed for sporulating as well as non-sporulating phenotypes at low solvent concentrations, suggesting that the increase in percentage of inactive cells was not a result of solvent toxicity or a transition from vegetative to sporulating stages. Additionally, the sporulating phenotype was challenged with butanol and cultivation with a lower starting pH was performed; in both these experiments similar trends were obtained-viability declined after the pH breakpoint, independent of the actual butanol concentration in the medium. Production characteristics of both sporulating and non-sporulating phenotypes were comparable, showing that in C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598, solventogenesis was not conditional on sporulation.We have shown that the decline in C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598 culture viability during ABE fermentation was not only the result of accumulated toxic metabolites, but might also be associated with a special survival strategy triggered by pH change.

September 22, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Geosporobacter ferrireducens and its versatility of anaerobic energy metabolism.

Members of the family Clostridiaceae within phylum Firmicutes are ubiquitous in various iron-reducing environments. However, genomic data on iron-reducing bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae, particularly regarding their environmental distribution, are limited. Here, we report the analysis and comparison of the genomic properties of Geosporobacter ferrireducens IRF9, a strict anaerobe that ferments sugars and degrades toluene under iron-reducing conditions, with those of the closely related species, Geosporobacter subterraneus DSM 17957. Putative alkyl succinate synthase-encoding genes were observed in the genome of strain IRF9 instead of the typical benzyl succinate synthase-encoding genes. Canonical genes associated with iron reduction were not observed in either genome. The genomes of strains IRF9 and DMS 17957 harbored genes for acetogenesis, that encode two types of Rnf complexes mediating the translocation of H+ and Na+ ions, respectively. Strain IRF9 harbored two different types of ATPases (Na+-dependent F-type ATPase and H+-dependent V-type ATPase), which enable full exploitation of ion gradients. The versatile energy conservation potential of strain IRF9 promotes its survival in various environmental conditions.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genome-based evolutionary history of Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas is a large and diverse genus of Gammaproteobacteria. To provide a framework for discovery of evolutionary and taxonomic relationships of these bacteria, we compared the genomes of type strains of 163 species and 3 additional subspecies of Pseudomonas, including 118 genomes sequenced herein. A maximum likelihood phylogeny of the 166 type strains based on protein sequences of 100 single-copy orthologous genes revealed thirteen groups of Pseudomonas, composed of two to sixty three species each. Pairwise average nucleotide identities and alignment fractions were calculated for the data set of the 166 type strains and 1224 genomes of Pseudomonas available in public databases. Results revealed that 394 of the 1224 genomes were distinct from any type strain, suggesting that the type strains represent only a fraction of the genomic diversity of the genus. The core genome of Pseudomonas was determined to contain 794 genes conferring primarily housekeeping functions. The results of this study provide a phylogenetic framework for future studies aiming to resolve the classification and phylogenetic relationships, identify new gene functions and phenotypes, and explore the ecological and metabolic potential of the Pseudomonas spp.© 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

September 22, 2019  |  

Extensive genomic diversity among Mycobacterium marinum strains revealed by whole genome sequencing.

Mycobacterium marinum is the causative agent for the tuberculosis-like disease mycobacteriosis in fish and skin lesions in humans. Ubiquitous in its geographical distribution, M. marinum is known to occupy diverse fish as hosts. However, information about its genomic diversity is limited. Here, we provide the genome sequences for 15 M. marinum strains isolated from infected humans and fish. Comparative genomic analysis of these and four available genomes of the M. marinum strains M, E11, MB2 and Europe reveal high genomic diversity among the strains, leading to the conclusion that M. marinum should be divided into two different clusters, the “M”- and the “Aronson”-type. We suggest that these two clusters should be considered to represent two M. marinum subspecies. Our data also show that the M. marinum pan-genome for both groups is open and expanding and we provide data showing high number of mutational hotspots in M. marinum relative to other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This high genomic diversity might be related to the ability of M. marinum to occupy different ecological niches.

July 19, 2019  |  

PacBio SMRT assembly of a complex multi-replicon genome reveals chlorocatechol degradative operon in a region of genome plasticity.

We have sequenced a Burkholderia genome that contains multiple replicons and large repetitive elements that would make it inherently difficult to assemble by short read sequencing technologies. We illustrate how the integrated long read correction algorithms implemented through the PacBio Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology successfully provided a de novo assembly that is a reasonable estimate of both the gene content and genome organization without making any further modifications. This assembly is comparable to related organisms assembled by more labour intensive methods. Our assembled genome revealed regions of genome plasticity for further investigation, one of which harbours a chlorocatechol degradative operon highly homologous to those previously identified on globally ubiquitous plasmids. In an ideal world, this assembly would still require experimental validation to confirm gene order and copy number of repeated elements. However, we submit that particularly in instances where a polished genome is not the primary goal of the sequencing project, PacBio SMRT sequencing provides a financially viable option for generating a biologically relevant genome estimate that can be utilized by other researchers for comparative studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, the first bacterium known to degrade chloroaromatic compounds.

Pseudomonas knackmussii B13 was the first strain to be isolated in 1974 that could degrade chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. This discovery was the prologue for subsequent characterization of numerous bacterial metabolic pathways, for genetic and biochemical studies, and which spurred ideas for pollutant bioremediation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of B13 using next generation sequencing technologies and optical mapping. Genome annotation indicated that B13 has a variety of metabolic pathways for degrading monoaromatic hydrocarbons including chlorobenzoate, aminophenol, anthranilate and hydroxyquinol, but not polyaromatic compounds. Comparative genome analysis revealed that B13 is closest to Pseudomonas denitrificans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The B13 genome contains at least eight genomic islands [prophages and integrative conjugative elements (ICEs)], which were absent in closely related pseudomonads. We confirm that two ICEs are identical copies of the 103?kb self-transmissible element ICEclc that carries the genes for chlorocatechol metabolism. Comparison of ICEclc showed that it is composed of a variable and a ‘core’ region, which is very conserved among proteobacterial genomes, suggesting a widely distributed family of so far uncharacterized ICE. Resequencing of two spontaneous B13 mutants revealed a number of single nucleotide substitutions, as well as excision of a large 220?kb region and a prophage that drastically change the host metabolic capacity and survivability. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the unclassified iron-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic Burkholderiales bacterium GJ-E10, isolated from an acidic river.

Burkholderiales bacterium GJ-E10, isolated from the Tamagawa River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, is an unclassified, iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium. Its single circular genome, consisting of 3,276,549 bp, was sequenced by using three types of next-generation sequencers and the sequences were then confirmed by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Fukushima et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 isolated from Lake Washington sediment.

Sequencing the genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 from Lake Washington sediment is announced. From the genome content, a versatile life-style is predicted, but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. Copyright © 2015 McTaggart et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of Geobacter pickeringii G13T, a metal-reducing isolate from sedimentary kaolin deposits.

We used PacBio sequencing to assemble the genome of the pristine freshwater isolate Geobacter pickeringii G13(T) into a single 3,618,700-bp circular chromosome polished to 99.999% accuracy (quality value [QV], 50). This isolate shares several features with other Geobacter spp., including genes for degradation of aromatics and an abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti and Bond.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genomes of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531Tand Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1T, two haloalkaliphilic metal-reducing Deltaproteobacteria.

We sequenced and annotated genomes of two haloalkaliphilic Deltaproteobacteria, Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531(T) (DSM 17813) and Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1(T) (DSM 23483). During assembly, we discovered that the DSMZ stock culture of G. subterraneus was contaminated. We reisolated G. subterraneus in axenic culture and redeposited it in DSMZ and JCM. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Polycyclovorans algicola strain TG408, an obligate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium associated with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton.

Polycyclovorans algicola strain TG408 is a recently discovered bacterium associated with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton and exhibits the ability to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) almost exclusively as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 3,653,213 bp, with 3,477 genes and an average G+C content of 63.8%. Copyright © 2015 Gutierrez et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of a novel bacterium within the family Rhodocyclaceae that degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium designated strain Ca6, a member of the family Rhodocyclaceae and a representative of the uncharacterized pyrene group 1 (PG1), was isolated and its genome sequenced. The presence of several genes suspected to be associated with PG1 was confirmed, and additional genes for aromatic compound metabolism were detected. Copyright © 2015 Singleton et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singapore wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets.

We report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species. Copyright © 2015 Dichosa et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of oxalate-degrading bacterium Pandoraea vervacti DSM 23571(T).

Pandoraea vervacti DSM 23571(T) is an oxalate metabolizing bacterium isolated from an uncultivated field soil in Mugla, Turkey. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of P. vervacti DSM 23571(T). A complete pathway for degradation of oxalate was revealed from the genome analysis. These data are important to path new opportunities for genetic engineering in the field of biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Haloarcula sp. CBA1115 isolated from non-purified solar salts.

Haloarcula sp. CBA1115, isolated from non-purified solar salts from South Korea, is a halophilic archaeon belonging to the family Halobacteriaceae. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain Haloarcula sp. CBA1115 (4,225,046bp, with a G+C content of 61.98%), which is distributed over one chromosome and five plasmids. A comparison of the genome sequence of Haloarcula sp. CBA1115 with those of members of its closely related taxa showed that the closest neighbor is Haloarcula hispanica Y27, a popular model organism for archaeal studies. The strain was found to possess a number of genes predicted to be involved in osmo-regulatory strategies and metal regulation, suggesting that it might be useful for bioremediation in extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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