April 21, 2020  |  

Full-length mRNA sequencing in Saccharina japonica and identification of carbonic anhydrase genes

The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that play an important role in the absorption and transportation of CO2 in Saccharina japonica. They are encoded by a superfamily of genes with seven subtypes that are unrelated in sequence but share conserved function in catalyzing the reversible conversion of CO2 and HCO3-. Here we have characterized the CA members in the transcriptome of S. japonica using Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Approximately 9830.4 megabases from 5,028,003 quality subreads were generated, and they were assembled into 326,512 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads, with an average flnc read length of 2181 bp. After removing redundant sequences, 79,010 unique transcripts were obtained of which 38,039 transcripts were successfully annotated. From the full-length transcriptome, we have identified 7 full-length cDNA sequences for CA genes (4 a-CAs, 1 ß-CAs and 2 ?-CAs) and assessed for their potential functions based on phylogenetic analysis. Characterizations of CAs will provide the ground for future studies to determine the involvement of CAs in inorganic carbon absorption and transportation in S. japonica.


April 21, 2020  |  

An Annotated Genome for Haliotis rufescens (Red Abalone) and Resequenced Green, Pink, Pinto, Black, and White Abalone Species.

Abalone are one of the few marine taxa where aquaculture production dominates the global market as a result of increasing demand and declining natural stocks from overexploitation and disease. To better understand abalone biology, aid in conservation efforts for endangered abalone species, and gain insight into sustainable aquaculture, we created a draft genome of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). The approach to this genome draft included initial assembly using raw Illumina and PacBio sequencing data with MaSuRCA, before scaffolding using sequencing data generated from Chicago library preparations with HiRise2. This assembly approach resulted in 8,371 scaffolds and total length of 1.498?Gb; the N50 was 1.895?Mb, and the longest scaffold was 13.2?Mb. Gene models were predicted, using MAKER2, from RNA-Seq data and all related expressed sequence tags and proteins from NCBI; this resulted in 57,785 genes with an average length of 8,255?bp. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms were called on Illumina short-sequencing reads from five other eastern Pacific abalone species: the green (H. fulgens), pink (H. corrugata), pinto (H. kamtschatkana), black (H. cracherodii), and white (H. sorenseni) abalone. Phylogenetic relationships largely follow patterns detected by previous studies based on 1,784,991 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms. Among the six abalone species examined, the endangered white abalone appears to harbor the lowest levels of heterozygosity. This draft genome assembly and the sequencing data provide a foundation for genome-enabled aquaculture improvement for red abalone, and for genome-guided conservation efforts for the other five species and, in particular, for the endangered white and black abalone.


April 21, 2020  |  

Full-length transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals transcript variants involved in the innate immune system.

To better understand the immune system of shrimp, this study combined PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and Illumina paired-end short reads sequencing methods to discover full-length immune-related molecules of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 72,648 nonredundant full-length transcripts (unigenes) were generated with an average length of 2545 bp from five main tissues, including the hepatopancreas, cardiac stomach, heart, muscle, and pyloric stomach. These unigenes exhibited a high annotation rate (62,164, 85.57%) when compared against NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, Pfam, GO, KEGG and COG databases. A total of 7544 putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were detected and 1164 nonredundant full-length transcripts (449 UniTransModels) participated in the alternative splicing (AS) events. Importantly, a total of 5279 nonredundant full-length unigenes were successfully identified, which were involved in the innate immune system, including 9 immune-related processes, 19 immune-related pathways and 10 other immune-related systems. We also found wide transcript variants, which increased the number and function complexity of immune molecules; for example, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). The 480 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly higher or tissue-specific expression patterns in the hepatopancreas compared with that in other four tested tissues (FDR <0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of six selected immune-related DEGs and putative IRFs were validated using real-time PCR technology, substantiating the reliability of the PacBio Iso-seq results. In conclusion, our results provide new genetic resources of long-read full-length transcripts data and information for identifying immune-related genes, which are an invaluable transcriptomic resource as genomic reference, especially for further exploration of the innate immune and defense mechanisms of shrimp. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

One Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolate with a pAsa5 variant bearing antibiotic resistance and a pRAS3 variant making a link with a swine pathogen.

The Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an aquatic pathogen which causes furunculosis to salmonids, especially in fish farms. The emergence of strains of this bacterium exhibiting antibiotic resistance is increasing, limiting the effectiveness of antibiotherapy as a treatment against this worldwide disease. In the present study, we discovered an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida that harbors two novel plasmids variants carrying antibiotic resistance genes. The use of long-read sequencing (PacBio) allowed us to fully characterize those variants, named pAsa5-3432 and pRAS3-3432, which both differ from their classic counterpart through their content in mobile genetic elements. The plasmid pAsa5-3432 carries a new multidrug region composed of multiple mobile genetic elements, including a Class 1 integron similar to an integrated element of Salmonella enterica. With this new region, probably acquired through plasmid recombination, pAsa5-3432 is the first reported plasmid of this bacterium that bears both an essential virulence factor (the type three secretion system) and multiple antibiotic resistance genes. As for pRAS3-3432, compared to the classic pRAS3, it carries a new mobile element that has only been identified in Chlamydia suis. Hence, with the identification of those two novel plasmids harboring mobile genetic elements that are normally encountered in other bacterial species, the present study puts emphasis on the important impact of mobile genetic elements in the genomic plasticity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and suggests that this aquatic bacterium could be an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes that can be exchanged with other bacteria, including human and animal pathogens. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Medaka Population Genome Structure and Demographic History Described via Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

Medaka is a model organism in medicine, genetics, developmental biology and population genetics. Lab stocks composed of more than 100 local wild populations are available for research in these fields. Thus, medaka represents a potentially excellent bioresource for screening disease-risk- and adaptation-related genes in genome-wide association studies. Although the genetic population structure should be known before performing such an analysis, a comprehensive study on the genome-wide diversity of wild medaka populations has not been performed. Here, we performed genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for 81 and 12 medakas captured from a bioresource and the wild, respectively. Based on the GBS data, we evaluated the genetic population structure and estimated the demographic parameters using an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework. The genome-wide data confirmed that there were substantial differences between local populations and supported our previously proposed hypothesis on medaka dispersal based on mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) data. A new finding was that a local group that was thought to be a hybrid between the northern and the southern Japanese groups was actually an origin of the northern Japanese group. Thus, this paper presents the first population-genomic study of medaka and reveals its population structure and history based on chromosomal genetic diversity.Copyright © 2019 by the Genetics Society of America.


April 21, 2020  |  

Construction of a Genomic Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library for the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Initial Analysis of ZW Chromosome-Derived BAC Inserts.

Knowledge on sex determination has proven valuable for commercial production of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to sex dimorphism of the male and female individuals. Previous studies indicated that prawn sex is determined by a ZW-ZZ chromosomal system, but no genomic information is available for the sex chromosome. Herein, we constructed a genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and identified the ZW-derived BAC clones for initial analysis of the sex chromosomal DNA sequence. The arrayed BAC library contains 200,448 clones with average insert size of 115.4 kb, corresponding to ~?4× coverage of the estimated 5.38 Gb genome. Based on a short female-specific marker, a Z- and a W-fragment were retrieved with the genomic walking method. Screening the BAC library using a ZW-specific marker as probe resulted in 12 positive clones. From these, a Z-derived (P331M17) and a W-derived (P122G2) BAC clones were randomly selected and sequenced by PacBio method. We report the construction of a large insert, deep-coverage, and high-quality BAC library for M. rosenbergii that provides a useful resource for positional cloning of target genes, genomic organization, and comparative genomics analysis. Our study not only confirmed the ZW/ZZ system but also discovered sex-linked genes on ZW chromosomes for the first time, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the genomic structure of sex chromosomes in M. rosenbergii.


April 21, 2020  |  

A siphonous macroalgal genome suggests convergent functions of homeobox genes in algae and land plants.

Genome evolution and development of unicellular, multinucleate macroalgae (siphonous algae) are poorly known, although various multicellular organisms have been studied extensively. To understand macroalgal developmental evolution, we assembled the ~26?Mb genome of a siphonous green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, with high contiguity, containing 9,311 protein-coding genes. Molecular phylogeny using 107 nuclear genes indicates that the diversification of the class Ulvophyceae, including C. lentillifera, occurred before the split of the Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. Compared with other green algae, the TALE superclass of homeobox genes, which expanded in land plants, shows a series of lineage-specific duplications in this siphonous macroalga. Plant hormone signalling components were also expanded in a lineage-specific manner. Expanded transport regulators, which show spatially different expression, suggest that the structural patterning strategy of a multinucleate cell depends on diversification of nuclear pore proteins. These results not only imply functional convergence of duplicated genes among green plants, but also provide insight into evolutionary roots of green plants. Based on the present results, we propose cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the structural differentiation in the siphonous alga. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.


April 21, 2020  |  

The complete mitogenome of clam Corbicula fluminea determined using next-generation and PacBio sequencing

Corbicula fluminea is an important aquatic commercial species in China. In this study, we present the complete mitogenome and a phylogenetic analysis of C. fluminea, determined using next-generation and PacBio long read sequencing. The mitogenome of C. fluminea is 17,423bp in size, including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a putative control region, all located on the same strand. The base composition of the entire mitogenome showed a conspicuous AþT bias of 70.5 %. The entire mitogenome data produced in this study provides the genomic resour- ces available for future evolutionary studies.


April 21, 2020  |  

Real time monitoring of Aeromonas salmonicida evolution in response to successive antibiotic therapies in a commercial fish farm.

Our ability to predict evolutionary trajectories of pathogens in response to antibiotic pressure is one of the promising leverage to fight against the present antibiotic resistance worldwide crisis. Yet, few studies tackled this question in situ at the outbreak level, due to the difficulty to link a given pathogenic clone evolution with its precise antibiotic exposure over time. In this study, we monitored the real-time evolution of an Aeromonas salmonicida clone in response to successive antibiotic and vaccine therapies in a commercial fish farm. The clone was responsible for a four-year outbreak of furunculosis within a Recirculating Aquaculture System Salmo salar farm in China, and we reconstructed the precise tempo of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) acquisition events during this period. The resistance profile provided by the acquired MGEs closely mirrored the antibiotics used to treat the outbreak, and we evidenced that two subclonal groups developed similar resistances although unrelated MGE acquisitions. Finally, we also demonstrated the efficiency of vaccination in outbreak management and its positive effect on antibiotic resistance prevalence. Our study provides unprecedented knowledge critical to understand evolutionary trajectories of resistant pathogens outside the laboratory. © 2019 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Chromosome-level genome assembly of Triplophysa tibetana, a fish adapted to the harsh high-altitude environment of the Tibetan Plateau.

Triplophysa is an endemic fish genus of the Tibetan Plateau in China. Triplophysa tibetana, which lives at a recorded altitude of ~4,000 m and plays an important role in the highland aquatic ecosystem, serves as an excellent model for investigating high-altitude environmental adaptation. However, evolutionary and conservation studies of T. tibetana have been limited by scarce genomic resources for the genus Triplophysa. In the present study, we applied PacBio sequencing and the Hi-C technique to assemble the T. tibetana genome. A 652-Mb genome with 1,325 contigs with an N50 length of 3.1 Mb was obtained. The 1,137 contigs were further assembled into 25 chromosomes, representing 98.7% and 80.47% of all contigs at the base and sequence number level, respectively. Approximately 260 Mb of sequence, accounting for ~39.8% of the genome, was identified as repetitive elements. DNA transposons (16.3%), long interspersed nuclear elements (12.4%) and long terminal repeats (11.0%) were the most repetitive types. In total, 24,372 protein-coding genes were predicted in the genome, and ~95% of the genes were functionally annotated via a search in public databases. Using whole genome sequence information, we found that T. tibetana diverged from its common ancestor with Danio rerio ~121.4 million years ago. The high-quality genome assembled in this work not only provides a valuable genomic resource for future population and conservation studies of T. tibetana, but it also lays a solid foundation for further investigation into the mechanisms of environmental adaptation of endemic fishes in the Tibetan Plateau. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Photobacterium damselae Subsp. damselae Strain SSPD1601 Isolated from Deep-Sea Cage-Cultured Sebastes schlegelii with Septic Skin Ulcer.

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PDD) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic organisms and humans. Based on an epidemiological investigation conducted over the past 3 years, PDD is one of the most important pathogens causing septic skin ulcer in deep-sea cage-cultured Sebastes schlegelii in the Huang-Bohai Sea area and present throughout the year with high abundance. To further understand the pathogenicity of this species, the pathogenic properties and genome of PDD strain SSPD1601 were analyzed. The results revealed that PDD strain SSPD1601 is a rod-shaped cell with a single polar flagellum, and the clinical symptoms were replicated during artificial infection. The SSPD1601 genome consists of two chromosomes and two plasmids, totaling 4,252,294?bp with 3,751 coding sequences (CDSs), 196 tRNA genes, and 47 rRNA genes. Common virulence factors including flagellin, Fur, RstB, hcpA, OMPs, htpB-Hsp60, VasK, and vgrG were found in strain SSPD1601. Furthermore, SSPD1601 is a pPHDD1-negative strain containing the hemolysin gene hlyAch and three putative hemolysins (emrA, yoaF, and VPA0226), which are likely responsible for the pathogenicity of SSPD1601. The phylogenetic analysis revealed SSPD1601 to be most closely related to Phdp Wu-1. In addition, the antibiotic resistance phenotype indicated that SSPD1601 was not sensitive to ceftazidime, pipemidic, streptomycin, cefalexin, bacitracin, cefoperazone sodium, acetylspiramycin, clarithromycin, amikacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only the bacitracin resistance gene bacA was detected based on Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database. These results expand our understanding of PDD, setting the stage for further studies of its pathogenesis and disease prevention.


April 21, 2020  |  

The sequence and de novo assembly of Oxygymnocypris stewartii genome.

Animal genomes in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provide valuable resources for scientists to understand the molecular mechanism of environmental adaptation. Tibetan fish species play essential roles in the local ecology; however, the genomic information for native fishes was still insufficient. Oxygymnocypris stewartii, belonging to Oxygymnocypris genus, Schizothoracinae subfamily, is a native fish in the Tibetan plateau living within the elevation from roughly 3,000?m to 4,200?m. In this report, PacBio and Illumina sequencing platform were used to generate ~385.3?Gb genomic sequencing data. A genome of about 1,849.2?Mb was obtained with a contig N50 length of 257.1?kb. More than 44.5% of the genome were identified as repetitive elements, and 46,400 protein-coding genes were annotated in the genome. The assembled genome can be used as a reference for future population genetic studies of O. stewartii and will improve our understanding of high altitude adaptation of fishes in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of a catalase from red-lip mullet (Liza haematocheila): Demonstration of antioxidative activity and mRNA upregulation in response to immunostimulants.

Reactive oxygen species, generated in all the aerobic organisms, can cause oxidative stress. Excessive ROS may become a source of carcinogen due to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, cell injury, and cell death. In order to prevent these adverse effects of ROS, antioxidant enzymes have evolved in aerobic organisms. Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme that breaks down excessive H2O2 and inhibits apoptotic cell death. Here we molecularly characterized catalase from red-lip mullet. The cDNA sequence of LhCAT consists of an ORF of 1545?bp, which encodes a 527 amino acid peptide (~60?kDa). Based on bioinformatics analysis, LhCAT possesses a domain architecture characteristic of catalases, including a catalase proximal active site signature and a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature. It also has heme and NADPH binding sites homologous to previously described catalases. Pairwise alignment with its homologs revealed that LhCAT shares 95.1% identity with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase and 97.4% similarity with Sparus aurata catalase. An uprooted phylogenetic tree demonstrated that LhCAT resides in a clade with catalases from other teleosts and exhibits a close relationship with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase. Among twelve tissue types, we observed the highest LhCAT mRNA expression in the liver, followed by blood. Immune challenge by Lactococcus garvieae, or Poly I:C in the blood or spleen resulted in up-regulation at 24?h post injection. We also tested the antioxidant activity of recombinant LhCAT against hydrogen peroxide and found its optimal concentration to be 12.5?µg/mL. Collectively, these data suggested that LhCAT play an important role in antioxidant defense and immune response of red-lip mullet.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

The Single-molecule long-read sequencing of Scylla paramamosain.

Scylla paramamosain is an important aquaculture crab, which has great economical and nutritional value. To the best of our knowledge, few full-length crab transcriptomes are available. In this study, a library composed of 12 different tissues including gill, hepatopancreas, muscle, cerebral ganglion, eyestalk, thoracic ganglia, intestine, heart, testis, ovary, sperm reservoir, and hemocyte was constructed and sequenced using Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing technology. A total of 284803 full-length non-chimeric reads were obtained, from which 79005 high-quality unique transcripts were obtained after error correction and sequence clustering and redundant. Additionally, a total of 52544 transcripts were annotated against protein database (NCBI nonredundant, Swiss-Prot, KOG, and KEGG database). A total of 23644 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 131561 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Meanwhile, the isoforms of many genes were also identified in this study. Our study provides a rich set of full-length cDNA sequences for S. paramamosain, which will greatly facilitate S. paramamosain research.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic analyses of two Alteromonas stellipolaris strains reveal traits with potential biotechnological applications.

The Alteromonas stellipolaris strains PQQ-42 and PQQ-44, previously isolated from a fish hatchery, have been selected on the basis of their strong quorum quenching (QQ) activity, as well as their ability to reduce Vibrio-induced mortality on the coral Oculina patagonica. In this study, the genome sequences of both strains were determined and analyzed in order to identify the mechanism responsible for QQ activity. Both PQQ-42 and PQQ-44 were found to degrade a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS signals, possibly due to the presence of an aac gene which encodes an AHL amidohydrolase. In addition, the different colony morphologies exhibited by the strains could be related to the differences observed in genes encoding cell wall biosynthesis and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The PQQ-42 strain produces more EPS (0.36?g?l-1) than the PQQ-44 strain (0.15?g?l-1), whose chemical compositions also differ. Remarkably, PQQ-44 EPS contains large amounts of fucose, a sugar used in high-value biotechnological applications. Furthermore, the genome of strain PQQ-42 contained a large non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) cluster with a previously unknown genetic structure. The synthesis of enzymes and other bioactive compounds were also identified, indicating that PQQ-42 and PQQ-44 could have biotechnological applications.


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