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October 1, 2017

The blaOXA-23-associated transposons in the genome of Acinetobacter spp. represent an epidemiological situation of the species encountering carbapenems.

High rates of carbapenem resistance in the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii threaten public health and need to be scrutinized.A total of 356 A. baumannii and 50 non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. (NBA) strains collected in 2013 throughout South Korea were studied. The type of blaOXA-23 transposon was determined by PCR mapping and molecular epidemiology was assessed by MLST. Twelve representative strains and two comparative A. baumannii were entirely sequenced by single-molecule real-time sequencing.The carbapenem resistance rate was 88% in A. baumannii, mainly due to blaOXA-23, with five exceptional cases associated with ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like. The blaOXA-23 gene in A. baumannii was carried either by…

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July 1, 2017

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II's sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing,…

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June 1, 2017

Genomic epidemiology of NDM-1-encoding plasmids in Latin American clinical isolates reveals insights into the evolution of multidrug resistance

Bacteria that produce the broad-spectrum Carbapenem antibiotic New Delhi Metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) place a burden on health care systems worldwide, due to the limited treatment options for infections caused by them and the rapid global spread of this antibiotic resistance mechanism. Although it is believed that the associated resistance gene blaNDM-1 originated in Acinetobacter spp., the role of Enterobacteriaceae in its dissemination remains unclear. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to investigate the dissemination dynamics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmids in a set of 21 clinical NDM-1-positive isolates from Colombia and Mexico (Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii) as well…

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May 1, 2017

Assessment of insertion sequence mobilization as an adaptive response to oxidative stress in Acinetobacter baumannii using IS-Seq.

Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than thirty IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Serial subculture in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of hydrogen peroxide led to rapid selection of cells carrying…

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March 7, 2017

Transcriptome Remodeling of Acinetobacter baumannii during Infection and Treatment.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly common multidrug-resistant pathogen in health care settings. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance mechanisms has been extensively studied, much less is known about how genetic variation contributes to other aspects of successful infections. Genetic changes that occur during host infection and treatment have the potential to remodel gene expression patterns related to resistance and pathogenesis. Longitudinal sets of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates from eight patients were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify differentially expressed genes and link them to genetic changes contributing to transcriptional variation at both within-patient and population levels. The number of…

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February 9, 2017

Genomic sequencing of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii and potential mechanisms to antibiotics resistance.

Acinetobacter baumannii has been becoming a great challenge to clinicians due to their resistance to almost all available antibiotics. In this study, we sequenced the genome from a multiple antibiotics resistant Acinetobacter baumannii stain which was named A. baumannii-1isolated from China by SMRT sequencing technology to explore its potential mechanisms to antibiotic resistance. We found that several mechanisms might contribute to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Specifically, we found that SNP in genes associated with nucleotide excision repair and ABC transporter might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; we also found that specific genes associated with bacterial DNA…

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January 1, 2017

Multi-omics approach to study global changes in a triclosan-resistant mutant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978.

Acinetobacter baumannii AB042, a triclosan-resistant mutant strain, was examined for modulated gene expression using whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomics and proteomics in order to understand the mechanism of triclosan resistance as well as its impact on A. baumannii. Data revealed modulated expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, co-factors known to play a role in the synthesis of fatty acids, as well as several transcriptional regulators. The membrane composition of the mutant revealed a decrease in C18 with a corresponding increase in C16 fatty acids compared with the parent strain A. baumannii ATCC 17978. These data indicate that A. baumannii responds to…

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December 1, 2016

Multiplication of blaOXA-23 is common in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii, but does not enhance carbapenem resistance.

To investigate the copy number of blaOXA-23 and its correlation with carbapenem resistance in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB).A total of 113 blaOXA-23-positive clinical CRAB isolates were collected from two hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. Their genetic relatedness was determined by MLST. The MIC of imipenem was determined using the agar diffusion method and the copy number of blaOXA-23 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The complete genomes of five clinical CRAB strains were sequenced using PacBio technology to investigate the multiplication mechanism of blaOXA-23.Most of the isolates (100/113) belonged to global clone II and the MIC of imipenem ranged…

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July 1, 2016

Prediction of putative resistance islands in a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 clinical isolate.

We investigated the whole genome sequence (WGS) of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate belonging to the global clone 2 (GC2) and predicted resistance islands using a software tool.A. baumannii strain YU-R612 was isolated from the sputum of a 61-yr-old man with sepsis. The WGS of the YU-R612 strain was obtained by using the PacBio RS II Sequencing System (Pacific Biosciences Inc., USA). Antimicrobial resistance genes and resistance islands were analyzed by using ResFinder and Genomic Island Prediction software (GIPSy), respectively.The YU-R612 genome consisted of a circular chromosome (ca. 4,075 kb) and two plasmids (ca. 74 kb and 5 kb). Its…

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June 23, 2016

Complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate obtained from a Mexican hospital (sequence type 422).

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen, particularly for severely ill patients in intensive care units and patients with hematologic malignancies. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate, recovered from a Mexican hospital and classified as sequence type 422 according to the multilocus sequence typing Pasteur scheme. Copyright © 2016 Castro-Jaimes et al.

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June 20, 2016

Initial assessment of the molecular epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia.

We report complete genome sequences of fourblaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. TheblaNDM-1genes were located 193Kb-Inc FIA, 178Kb-Inc A/C2 and 47Kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. MLST revealed that isolates belong to ST10 (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumanniiandA. nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid inE. colicontained a novel complex transposon (Tn125and Tn5393with 3 copies ofblaNDM-1) and a recombination "hotspot" for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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March 7, 2016

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii XH386 (ST208), a multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from pediatric hospital in China.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterium that emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The rise of A. baumannii was due to its multi-drug resistance (MDR), while it was difficult to treat multi-drug resistant A. baumannii with antibiotics, especially in pediatric patients for the therapeutic options with antibiotics were quite limited in pediatric patients. A. baumannii ST208 was identified as predominant sequence type of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii in the United States and China. As we knew, there was no complete genome sequence reproted for A. baumannii ST208, although several whole genome shotgun sequences had been reported. Here, we sequenced…

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November 1, 2015

Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a university hospital in Nepal reveals the emergence of a novel epidemic clonal lineage.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious medical problem worldwide. To clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from a medical setting in Nepal, 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from different patients were screened for MDR A. baumannii by antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Whole genomes of the MDR A. baumannii isolates were sequenced by MiSeq™ (Illumina), and the complete genome of one isolate (IOMTU433) was sequenced by PacBio RS II. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. Of…

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September 10, 2015

Genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains isolated from Southern India

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen causing infections worldwide. In this study, we determined the genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clinical strains isolated from a hospital in southern India. Genome analyses indicate that both the strains harbor numerous horizontally transferred genetic elements and antibiotic resistance cassettes. Copyright © 2015 Balaji et al.

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