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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single-molecule real-time transcript sequencing facilitates common wheat genome annotation and grain transcriptome research.

The large and complex hexaploid genome has greatly hindered genomics studies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD). Here, we investigated transcripts in common wheat developing caryopses using the emerging single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology PacBio RSII, and assessed the resultant data for improving common wheat genome annotation and grain transcriptome research.We obtained 197,709 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads, 74.6 % of which were estimated to carry complete open reading frame. A total of 91,881 high-quality FLNC reads were identified and mapped to 16,188 chromosomal loci, corresponding to 13,162 known genes and 3026 new genes not annotated previously. Although some FLNC reads could…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Occurrence, evolution, and functions of DNA phosphorothioate epigenetics in bacteria.

The chemical diversity of physiological DNA modifications has expanded with the identification of phosphorothioate (PT) modification in which the nonbridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is replaced by sulfur. Together with DndFGH as cognate restriction enzymes, DNA PT modification, which is catalyzed by the DndABCDE proteins, functions as a bacterial restriction-modification (R-M) system that protects cells against invading foreign DNA. However, the occurrence of dnd systems across a large number of bacterial genomes and their functions other than R-M are poorly understood. Here, a genomic survey revealed the prevalence of bacterial dnd systems: 1,349 bacterial dnd systems were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-based evolutionary history of Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas is a large and diverse genus of Gammaproteobacteria. To provide a framework for discovery of evolutionary and taxonomic relationships of these bacteria, we compared the genomes of type strains of 163 species and 3 additional subspecies of Pseudomonas, including 118 genomes sequenced herein. A maximum likelihood phylogeny of the 166 type strains based on protein sequences of 100 single-copy orthologous genes revealed thirteen groups of Pseudomonas, composed of two to sixty three species each. Pairwise average nucleotide identities and alignment fractions were calculated for the data set of the 166 type strains and 1224 genomes of Pseudomonas available in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics provides insights into the marine adaptation in sponge-derived Kocuriaflava S43.

Sponge-derived actinomycetes represent a significant component of marine actinomycetes. Members of the genus Kocuria are distributed in various habitats such as soil, rhizosphere, clinical specimens, marine sediments, and sponges, however, to date, little is known about the mechanism of their environmental adaptation. Kocuria flava S43 was isolated from a coastal sponge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was closely related to the terrestrial airborne K. flava HO-9041. In this study, to gain insights into the marine adaptation in K. flava S43 we sequenced the draft genome for K. flava S43 by third generation sequencing (TGS) and compared it with those of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome of Glyptosternon maculatum, an endemic fish from Tibet Plateau.

Mechanisms for high-altitude adaption have attracted widespread interest among evolutionary biologists. Several genome-wide studies have been carried out for endemic vertebrates in Tibet, including mammals, birds, and amphibians. However, little information is available about the adaptive evolution of highland fishes. Glyptosternon maculatum (Regan 1905), also known as Regan or barkley and endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Sisoridae family, order Siluriformes (catfishes). This species lives at an elevation ranging from roughly 2,800 m to 4,200 m. Hence, a high-quality reference genome of G. maculatum provides an opportunity to investigate high-altitude adaption mechanisms of fishes.To obtain a high-quality reference…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The mitochondrial genome map of Nelumbo nucifera reveals ancient evolutionary features.

Nelumbo nucifera is an evolutionary relic from the Late Cretaceous period. Sequencing the N. nucifera mitochondrial genome is important for elucidating the evolutionary characteristics of basal eudicots. Here, the N. nucifera mitochondrial genome was sequenced using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT), and the mitochondrial genome map was constructed after de novo assembly and annotation. The results showed that the 524,797-bp N. nucifera mitochondrial genome has a total of 63 genes, including 40 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 20 tRNA genes. Fifteen collinear gene clusters were conserved across different plant species. Approximately 700 RNA editing sites in the protein-coding…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Resequencing of 243 diploid cotton accessions based on an updated A genome identifies the genetic basis of key agronomic traits.

The ancestors of Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum provided the A subgenome for the modern cultivated allotetraploid cotton. Here, we upgraded the G. arboreum genome assembly by integrating different technologies. We resequenced 243?G. arboreum and G. herbaceum accessions to generate a map of genome variations and found that they are equally diverged from Gossypium raimondii. Independent analysis suggested that Chinese G. arboreum originated in South China and was subsequently introduced to the Yangtze and Yellow River regions. Most accessions with domestication-related traits experienced geographic isolation. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 98 significant peak associations for 11 agronomically important traits in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A precise chloroplast genome of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae) evaluated with Sanger, Illumina MiSeq, and PacBio RS II sequencing platforms: insight into the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.

BackgroundThe chloroplast genome is important for plant development and plant evolution. Nelumbo nucifera is one member of relict plants surviving from the late Cretaceous. Recently, a new sequencing platform PacBio RS II, known as `SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing¿, has been developed. Using the SMRT sequencing to investigate the chloroplast genome of N. nucifera will help to elucidate the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.ResultsThe sizes of the de novo assembled complete chloroplast genome of N. nucifera were 163,307 bp, 163,747 bp and 163,600 bp with average depths of coverage of 7×, 712× and 105× sequenced by Sanger, Illumina MiSeq and PacBio RS II,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic mapping of phosphorothioates reveals partial modification of short consensus sequences.

Bacterial phosphorothioate (PT) DNA modifications are incorporated by Dnd proteins A-E and often function with DndF-H as a restriction-modification (R-M) system, as in Escherichia coli B7A. However, bacteria such as Vibrio cyclitrophicus FF75 lack dndF-H, which points to other PT functions. Here we report two novel, orthogonal technologies to map PTs across the genomes of B7A and FF75 with >90% agreement: single molecule, real-time sequencing and deep sequencing of iodine-induced cleavage at PT (ICDS). In B7A, we detect PT on both strands of GpsAAC/GpsTTC motifs, but with only 12% of 40,701 possible sites modified. In contrast, PT in FF75 occurs…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of YfiH and the catalase CatA as polyphenol oxidases of Aeromonas media and CatA as a regulator of pigmentation by Its peroxyl radical scavenging capacity.

Pyomelanin is the major constituent of pigment in melanogenic Aeromonas strains of bacteria. However, eumelanin, synthesized from tyrosine via L-DOPA and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), may also be present in this genus since L-DOPA is frequently detected in culture fluids of several species. To address this question, we used a deletion mutant of Aeromonas media strain WS, in which pyomelanin synthesis is completely blocked under normal culture conditions. When tyrosine was supplied to the medium, we observed residual melanin accumulation, which we interpret as evidence for existence of the DOPA-melanin pathway. We traced enzymatic activity in this bacterium using native-polyacrylamide gel…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli.

As a highly valued keto-carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the a-Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin naturally. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway using a combined PacBio-Illumina approach. The putative astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 was predicted. For further confirmation, a high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the poly-?-glutamate-synthesizing Bacterium Bacillus subtilis Bs-115.

Bacillus subtilis Bs-115 was isolated from the soil of a corn field in Yutai County, Jinan City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China, and is characterized by the efficient synthesis of poly-?-glutamate (?-PGA), with corn saccharification liquid as the sole energy and carbon source during the process of ?-PGA formation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis Bs-115 and the genes associated with poly-?-glutamate synthesis. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

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