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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The hidden perils of read mapping as a quality assessment tool in genome sequencing.

This article provides a comparative analysis of the various methods of genome sequencing focusing on verification of the assembly quality. The results of a comparative assessment of various de novo assembly tools, as well as sequencing technologies, are presented using a recently completed sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum 3872. In particular, quality of assemblies is assessed by using CLC Genomics Workbench read mapping and Optical mapping developed by OpGen. Over-extension of contigs without prior knowledge of contig location can lead to misassembled contigs, even when commonly used quality indicators such as read mapping suggest that a contig is…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing and analysis of Talaromyces pinophilus provide insights into biotechnological applications.

Species from the genus Talaromyces produce useful biomass-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites. However, these enzymes and secondary metabolites are still poorly understood and have not been explored in depth because of a lack of comprehensive genetic information. Here, we report a 36.51-megabase genome assembly of Talaromyces pinophilus strain 1-95, with coverage of nine scaffolds of eight chromosomes with telomeric repeats at their ends and circular mitochondrial DNA. In total, 13,472 protein-coding genes were predicted. Of these, 803 were annotated to encode enzymes that act on carbohydrates, including 39 cellulose-degrading and 24 starch-degrading enzymes. In addition, 68 secondary metabolism gene clusters…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of Class IIa bacteriocin resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, particularly resistant Enterococcus faecium, pose an escalating threat in nosocomial environments because of their innate resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin, a treatment of last resort. Many class IIa bacteriocins strongly target these enterococci and may offer a potential alternative for the management of this pathogen. However, E. faecium’s resistance to these peptides remains relatively uncharacterized. Here, we explored the development of resistance of E. faecium to a cocktail of three class IIa bacteriocins: enterocin A, enterocin P, and hiracin JM79. We started by quantifying the frequency of resistance to these peptides in four clinical isolates of E.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequences of two closely related bacteria, Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101 and Actinomyces denticolens DSM 20671(T).

Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101, isolated from an arthritic leg joint of a pig raised in Japan, is a bacterium closely related to Actinomyces denticolens Here, we deciphered the complete genome sequence of Actinomyces sp. Chiba101 and the high-quality draft genome sequence of A. denticolens DSM 20671(T). Copyright © 2017 Kanesaki et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus LMG 22257, a strain with ureolytic activity inducing calcium carbonate precipitation.

Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation shows the potential for use in bioremediation and construction consolidation, but the efficiency of this process must be improved. Lysinibacillus sphaericus LMG 22257 is a gram-positive ureolytic strain that has recently been applied for consolidating construction by mediating calcium carbonate precipitation. The complete genome sequence of L. sphaericus LMG 22257 is 3,436,578 base pairs with a GC content of 38.99%. The urea degradation pathway and genes related to extracellular polymeric substance biosynthesis were also identified. The strain can tolerate high alkalinity (pH up to 10) and high urea concentration (up to 3M). These findings provide…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete annotated genome sequences of two Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and one atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strain, isolated from naturally colonized cattle of German origin.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important zoonotic enteric pathogens with the main reservoir in cattle. Here, we present the genomes of two STEC strains and one atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strain from cattle origin, obtained during a longitudinal study in German cattle herds. Copyright © 2017 Geue et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary origin of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).

Several lines of evidence indicate that the most primitive staphylococcal species, those of the Staphylococcus sciuri group, were involved in the first stages of evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element carrying the ß-lactam resistance gene mecA However, many steps are still missing from this evolutionary history. In particular, it is not known how mecA was incorporated into the mobile element SCC prior to dissemination among Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic staphylococcal species. To gain insights into the possible contribution of several species of the Staphylococcus sciuri group to the assembly of SCCmec, we sequenced the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of a gene cluster for telomestatin biosynthesis and heterologous expression using a specific promoter in a clean host.

Telomestatin, a strong telomerase inhibitor with G-quadruplex stabilizing activity, is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancers. Difficulties in isolating telomestatin from microbial cultures and in chemical synthesis are bottlenecks impeding the wider use. Therefore, improvement in telomestatin production and structural diversification are required for further utilization and application. Here, we discovered the gene cluster responsible for telomestatin biosynthesis, and achieved production of telomestatin by heterologous expression of this cluster in the engineered Streptomyces avermitilis SUKA strain. Utilization of an optimal promoter was essential for successful production. Gene disruption studies revealed that the tlsB, tlsC, and tlsO-T genes play key…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-3 in Escherichia coli.

The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted global attention, as it heralds the breach of polymyxins, one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. To date, six slightly different variants of mcr-1, and a second mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, have been reported or annotated in the GenBank database. Here, we characterized a third mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 The gene coexisted with 18 additional resistance determinants in the 261-kb IncHI2-type plasmid pWJ1 from porcine Escherichia colimcr-3 showed 45.0% and 47.0% nucleotide sequence identity to mcr-1 and mcr-2, respectively, while…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the cellulose-producing strain Komagataeibacter nataicola RZS01.

Komagataeibacter nataicola is an acetic acid bacterium (AAB) that can produce abundant bacterial cellulose and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid. To globally understand its fermentation characteristics, we present a high-quality complete genome sequence of K. nataicola RZS01. The genome consists of a 3,485,191-bp chromosome and 6 plasmids, which encode 3,514 proteins and bear three cellulose synthase operons. Phylogenetic analysis at the genome level provides convincing evidence of the evolutionary position of K. nataicola with respect to related taxa. Genomic comparisons with other AAB revealed that RZS01 shares 36.1%~75.1% of sequence similarity with other AAB. The sequence data was also…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detection of an Escherichia coli sequence type 167 strain with two tandem copies of blaNDM-1 in the chromosome.

New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has disseminated rapidly throughout the world and poses an urgent threat to public health. Previous studies confirmed that the blaNDM-1 gene is typically carried in plasmids but rarely in chromosome. We discovered a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain Y5, originating from a urine sample and containing the blaNDM-1 gene, which did not transfer by either conjugation or electrotransformation. We confirmed the possibility of its chromosome location by S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and XbaI-PFGE, followed by Southern blotting. To determine the genomic background of blaNDM-1, the genome of Y5 was completely sequenced and compared to other reference…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of three representative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains belonging to distinct genotype clusters in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 2007 to 2009.

We present here three complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains isolated in Hanoi, Vietnam. These three strains were selected from major genotypic clusters (15-MIRU-VNTR) identified in a previous population-based study. We emphasize their importance and potential as reference strains in this Asian region. Copyright © 2017 Wada et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First report of Klebsiella oxytoca strain simultaneously producing NDM-1, IMP-4 and KPC-2 carbapenemases.

The nucleotide sequences of five plasmids from one Klebsiella oxytoca isolate were determined using the PacBio RS II system. Plasmid analysis revealed that blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid. The blaIMP-4 and blaKPC-2 genes were located on IncN and IncP-6 plasmids, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis highlighted the successful spread of carbapenemase-harboring plasmids among different enterobacterial species. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, coproducing NDM-1, KPC-2, and IMP-4 carbapenemases on a K. oxytoca isolate. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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