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Sunday, July 7, 2019

No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini.

Tardigrades are meiofaunal ecdysozoans that are key to understanding the origins of Arthropoda. Many species of Tardigrada can survive extreme conditions through cryptobiosis. In a recent paper [Boothby TC, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976-15981], the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini As expected from whole-organism DNA sampling, our raw data contained reads from nontarget genomes. Filtering using metagenomics approaches generated a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reply to Bemm et al. and Arakawa: Identifying foreign genes in independent Hypsibius dujardini genome assemblies.

Our report (1) describing the discovery of extensive horizontal gene transfer in a tardigrade genome has raised questions from other groups who were sequencing the Hypsibius dujardini genome in parallel or who have done new experiments and analyses since our report (2??–5). Bemm et al. (2) now report filtering our data for likely contaminants, resulting in a new, prefiltered genome assembly. Arakawa (3) has sequenced genomes of starved, washed, individual animals that had been treated with antibiotics for 48 h, and used this genomic sequence and RNA-Seq data to identify likely bona fide tardigrade contigs. Two other reports have contributed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recombination rate heterogeneity within Arabidopsis disease resistance genes.

Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved long read correction for de novo assembly using an FM-index

Long read sequencing is changing the landscape of genomic research, especially de novo assembly. Despite the high error rate inherent to long read technologies, increased read lengths dramatically improve the continuity and accuracy of genome assemblies. However, the cost and throughput of these technologies limits their application to complex genomes. One solution is to decrease the cost and time to assemble novel genomes by leveraging textquotedbllefthybridtextquotedblright assemblies that use long reads for scaffolding and short reads for accuracy. To this end, we describe a novel application of a multi-string Burrows-Wheeler transform with auxiliary FM-index to correct errors in long read…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a bacterium representing a deep uncultivated lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria associated with the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

The bacterial strain TR3.2, representing a novel deeply branching lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, was isolated and its genome sequenced. This isolate is the first cultivated representative of the previously described “Pyrene Group 2” (PG2) and represents a variety of environmental sequences primarily associated with petrochemical contamination and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Copyright © 2016 Singleton et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transfer of the methicillin resistance genomic island among staphylococci by conjugation.

Methicillin resistance creates a major obstacle for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The resistance gene, mecA, is carried on a large (20 kb to?>?60 kb) genomic island, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), that excises from and inserts site-specifically into the staphylococcal chromosome. However, although SCCmec has been designated a mobile genetic element, a mechanism for its transfer has not been defined. Here we demonstrate the capture and conjugative transfer of excised SCCmec. SCCmec was captured on pGO400, a mupirocin-resistant derivative of the pGO1/pSK41 staphylococcal conjugative plasmid lineage, and pGO400::SCCmec (pRM27) was transferred by filter-mating into both homologous and heterologous S.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

D1FHS, the type strain of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosococcus wardiae spec. nov.: enrichment, isolation, phylogenetic, and growth physiological characterization.

An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, strain D1FHS, was enriched into pure culture from a sediment sample retrieved in Jiaozhou Bay, a hyper-eutrophic semi-closed water body hosting the metropolitan area of Qingdao, China. Based on initial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain D1FHS was classified in the genus Nitrosococcus, family Chromatiaceae, order Chromatiales, class Gammaproteobacteria; the 16S rRNA gene sequence with highest level of identity to that of D1FHS was obtained from Nitrosococcus halophilus Nc4(T). The average nucleotide identity between the genomes of strain D1FHS and N. halophilus strain Nc4 is 89.5%. Known species in the genus Nitrosococcus are obligate aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Susan Celniker: Foundational resources to study a dynamic genome.

The Genetics Society of America’s George W. Beadle Award honors individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the community of genetics researchers and who exemplify the qualities of its namesake. The 2016 recipient, Susan E. Celniker, played a key role in the sequencing, annotation, and characterization of the Drosophila genome. She participated in early sequencing efforts at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and led the modENCODE Fly Transcriptome Consortium. Her efforts were critical to ensuring that the Drosophila genome was well-annotated, making it one of the best curated animal genomes available. As the Principal Investigator for the BDGP, Celniker has…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

FMLRC: Hybrid long read error correction using an FM-index.

Long read sequencing is changing the landscape of genomic research, especially de novo assembly. Despite the high error rate inherent to long read technologies, increased read lengths dramatically improve the continuity and accuracy of genome assemblies. However, the cost and throughput of these technologies limits their application to complex genomes. One solution is to decrease the cost and time to assemble novel genomes by leveraging “hybrid” assemblies that use long reads for scaffolding and short reads for accuracy.We describe a novel method leveraging a multi-string Burrows-Wheeler Transform with auxiliary FM-index to correct errors in long read sequences using a set…

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