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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus lutrae ATCC 700373, a potential pathogen isolated from deceased otters.

Despite their relevance to human health, not all staphylococcal species have been characterized. As such, the potential zoonotic threats posed by uninvestigated species and their contribution to the staphylococcal pangenome are unclear. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus lutrae ATCC 700373, a coagulase-positive species isolated from deceased otters. Copyright © 2017 Veseli et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of Burkholderia contaminans LMG 23361T.

Burkholderia contaminans LMG 23361 is the type strain of the species isolated from the milk of a dairy sheep with mastitis. Some pharmaceutical products contain disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride (BZK) and previously we reported that B. contaminans LMG 23361(T) possesses the ability to inactivate BZK with high biodegradation rates. Here, we report an improved high-quality draft genome sequence of this strain. Copyright © 2017 Jung et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT): population-scale mobile element discovery and biology.

Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale. Using both Illumina WGS data and simulations, we demonstrate that MELT outperforms existing MEI discovery tools in terms of speed, scalability,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methylation-dependent DNA discrimination in natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni.

Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, is naturally competent. Like many competent organisms, C. jejuni restricts the DNA that can be used for transformation to minimize undesirable changes in the chromosome. Although C. jejuni can be transformed by C. jejuni-derived DNA, it is poorly transformed by the same DNA propagated in Escherichia coli or produced with PCR. Our work indicates that methylation plays an important role in marking DNA for transformation. We have identified a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase, which we term Campylobacter transformation system methyltransferase (ctsM), which methylates an overrepresented 6-bp sequence in the chromosome. DNA derived…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome-wide discovery of genes required for capsule production by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

N6-adenine DNA methylation is associated with the linker DNA of H2A.Z-containing well-positioned nucleosomes in Pol II-transcribed genes in Tetrahymena.

DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) is newly rediscovered as a potential epigenetic mark across a more diverse range of eukaryotes than previously realized. As a unicellular model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila is among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA modification. However, lack of comprehensive information about 6mA distribution hinders further investigations into its function and regulatory mechanism. In this study, we provide the first genome-wide, base pair-resolution map of 6mA in Tetrahymena by applying single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We provide evidence that 6mA occurs mostly in the AT motif of the linker DNA regions. More strikingly, these linker DNA regions with 6mA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Observations on bipolar disjunctions of moonwort ferns (Botrychium, Ophioglossaceae).

Peter Raven, in 1963, included two fern taxa of the genus Botrychium in his list of plant species exhibiting American amphitropical bipolar disjunctions. He attributed the southern hemisphere occurrences to post-Pleistocene long-distance dispersal from counterparts in the northern hemisphere, probably assisted by annual bird migrations between the disjunct areas. Using genetic evidence gathered through worldwide analyses of phylogenetic relationship in Botrychium, we now review and reconsider Raven’s conclusions. Genetic similarities indicate that South American Botrychium dusenii is an allotetraploid taxon closely related to B. spathulatum, a North American endemic, and that B. lunaria in New Zealand possesses a genotype identical…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome of an intranuclear parasite, Paramicrosporidium saccamoebae, reveals alternative adaptations to obligate intracellular parasitism.

Intracellular parasitism often results in gene loss, genome reduction, and dependence upon the host for cellular functioning. Rozellomycota is a clade comprising many such parasites and is related to the diverse, highly reduced, animal parasites, Microsporidia. We sequenced the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes ofParamicrosporidium saccamoebae[Rozellomycota], an intranuclear parasite of amoebae. A canonical fungal mitochondrial genome was recovered fromP. saccamoebaethat encodes genes necessary for the complete oxidative phosphorylation pathway including Complex I, differentiating it from most endoparasites including its sequenced relatives in Rozellomycota and Microsporidia. Comparative analysis revealed thatP. saccamoebaeshares more gene content with distantly related Fungi than with its closest…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A recurrence-based approach for validating structural variation using long-read sequencing technology.

Although numerous algorithms have been developed to identify structural variations (SVs) in genomic sequences, there is a dearth of approaches that can be used to evaluate their results. This is significant as the accurate identification of structural variation is still an outstanding but important problem in genomics. The emergence of new sequencing technologies that generate longer sequence reads can, in theory, provide direct evidence for all types of SVs regardless of the length of the region through which it spans. However, current efforts to use these data in this manner require the use of large computational resources to assemble these…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Resolving complex structural genomic rearrangements using a randomized approach.

Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural genomic alterations involving multiple instances of deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations that co-occur either on the same chromosome or represent different overlapping events on homologous chromosomes. We present SVelter, an algorithm that identifies regions of the genome suspected to harbor a complex event and then resolves the structure by iteratively rearranging the local genome structure, in a randomized fashion, with each structure scored against characteristics of the observed sequencing data. SVelter is able to accurately reconstruct complex chromosomal rearrangements when compared to well-characterized genomes that have been deeply sequenced with both short and long reads.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of two interactive moderate thermophiles, Paenibacillus napthalenovorans 32O-Y and Paenibacillus sp. 32O-W.

Microorganisms with the capability to desulfurize petroleum are in high demand with escalating restrictions currently placed on fuel purity. Thermophilic desulfurizers are particularly valuable in high-temperature industrial applications. We report the whole-genome sequences of Paenibacillus napthalenovorans 32O-Y and Paenibacillus sp. 32O-W, which can and cannot, respectively, metabolize dibenzothiophene. Copyright © 2016 Butler et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of emm28 type Streptococcus pyogenes MEW123, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of a clinical throat isolate suitable for investigation of pathogenesis.

We present here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes type emm28 strain MEW123, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of a pediatric throat isolate. The genome length is 1,878,699 bp, with 38.29% G+C% content. The genome sequence adds value to this virulent emm28 representative strain and will aid in the investigation of streptococcal pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Jacob et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a throat isolate from a child meeting clinical criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS).

We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. Copyright © 2016 Jacob et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A commensal bacterium promotes virulence of an opportunistic pathogen via cross-respiration.

Bacteria rarely inhabit infection sites alone, instead residing in diverse, multispecies communities. Despite this fact, bacterial pathogenesis studies primarily focus on monoculture infections, overlooking how community interactions influence the course of disease. In this study, we used global mutant fitness profiling (transposon sequencing [Tn-seq]) to determine the genetic requirements for the pathogenic bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to cause disease when coinfecting with the commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii Our results show that S. gordonii extensively alters A. actinomycetemcomitans requirements for virulence factors and biosynthetic pathways during infection. In addition, we discovered that the presence of S. gordonii enhances the bioavailability of oxygen during infection, allowing…

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