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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A putative microcin amplifies Shiga toxin 2a production of Escherichia coli O157: H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen, implicated in various multi-state outbreaks. It encodes Shiga toxin on a prophage, and Shiga toxin production is linked to phage induction. An E. coli strain, designated 0.1229, was identified that amplified Stx2a production when co-cultured with E. coli O157:H7 strain PA2. Growth of PA2 in 0.1229 cell-free supernatants had a similar effect, even when supernatants were heated to 100°C for 10 min, but not after treatment with Proteinase K. The secreted molecule was shown to use TolC for export and the TonB system for import. The genes sufficient for production of this molecule…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic analysis of Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6 isolated from the deep-sea oceanic crust on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Two Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6 were isolated from a deep oceanic basaltic crust at North Pond, located at the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These two strains are capable of using multiple carbon sources such as acetate, succinate, glucose and sucrose while take oxygen as a primary electron acceptor. The strain NP-4 is also able to grow anaerobically under 20?MPa, with nitrate as the electron acceptor, thus represents a piezotolerant. To explore the metabolic potentials of Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6, the complete genome of NP-4 and close-to-complete genome of NP-6 were sequenced. The genome of NP-4 contains…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence provides insights into the quorum sensing-related spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica 128 isolated from spoiled shrimp.

Shewanella baltica 128 is a specific spoilage organism (SSO) isolated from the refrigerated shrimp that results in shrimp spoilage. This study reported the complete genome sequencing of this strain, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (8.66%), indicating that S. baltica 128 has good potential for degrading proteins. In vitro experiments revealed Shewanella baltica 128 could adapt to the stress conditions by regulating its growth and biofilm formation. Genes that related to the spoilage-related metabolic pathways, including trimethylamine metabolism (torT), sulfur metabolism (cysM), putrescine metabolism (speC), biofilm formation (rpoS) and serine protease production (degS), were identified.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Recovered from a Major Production Region for Leafy Greens in California.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen and is responsible for outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. This report documents the draft genome sequences of nine O157:H7 cattle strains, which were identified to be PCR positive for a Shiga toxin gene but displayed different levels of functional toxin activity.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A Novel Bacteriophage Exclusion (BREX) System Encoded by the pglX Gene in Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

The bacteriophage exclusion (BREX) system is a novel prokaryotic defense system against bacteriophages. To our knowledge, no study has systematically characterized the function of the BREX system in lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a probiotic bacterium originating from koumiss. By using single-molecule real-time sequencing, we previously identified N6-methyladenine (m6A) signatures in the genome of L. casei Zhang and a putative methyltransferase (MTase), namely, pglX This work further analyzed the genomic locus near the pglX gene and identified it as a component of the BREX system. To decipher the biological role of pglX, an L. casei Zhang pglX mutant…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic Islands in the Full-Genome Sequence of an NAD-Hemin-Independent Avibacterium paragallinarum Strain Isolated from Peru.

Here, we report the full-genome sequence of an NAD-hemin-independent Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar C-2 strain, FARPER-174, isolated from layer hens in Peru. This genome contained 12 potential genomic islands that include ribosomal protein-coding genes, a nadR gene, hemocin-coding genes, sequences of fagos, an rtx operon, and drug resistance genes. Copyright © 2019 Tataje-Lavanda et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Complete Genome of the Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Archetype Isolate E110019 Highlights a Role for Plasmids in Dissemination of the Type III Secreted Effector EspT.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea among young children in developing countries, and EPEC isolates can be subdivided into two groups. Typical EPEC (tEPEC) bacteria are characterized by the presence of both the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and the plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pilus (BFP), which are involved in adherence and translocation of type III effectors into the host cells. Atypical EPEC (aEPEC) bacteria also contain the LEE but lack the BFP. In the current report, we describe the complete genome of outbreak-associated aEPEC isolate E110019, which carries four plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Harnessing long-read amplicon sequencing to uncover NRPS and Type I PKS gene sequence diversity in polar desert soils.

The severity of environmental conditions at Earth’s frigid zones present attractive opportunities for microbial biomining due to their heightened potential as reservoirs for novel secondary metabolites. Arid soil microbiomes within the Antarctic and Arctic circles are remarkably rich in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, bacterial phyla known to be prolific producers of natural products. Yet the diversity of secondary metabolite genes within these cold, extreme environments remain largely unknown. Here, we employed amplicon sequencing using PacBio RS II, a third generation long-read platform, to survey over 200 soils spanning twelve east Antarctic and high Arctic sites for natural product-encoding genes, specifically targeting…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Remedial Treatment of Corroded Iron Objects by Environmental Aeromonas Isolates.

Using bacteria to transform reactive corrosion products into stable compounds represents an alternative to traditional methods employed in iron conservation. Two environmental Aeromonas strains (CA23 and CU5) were used to transform ferric iron corrosion products (goethite and lepidocrocite) into stable ferrous iron-bearing minerals (vivianite and siderite). A genomic and transcriptomic approach was used to analyze the metabolic traits of these strains and to evaluate their pathogenic potential. Although genes involved in solid-phase iron reduction were identified, key genes present in other environmental iron-reducing species are missing from the genome of CU5. Several pathogenicity factors were identified in the genomes of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Information about variations in multiple copies of bacterial 16S rRNA genes may aid in species identification.

Variable region analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences is the most common tool in bacterial taxonomic studies. Although used for distinguishing bacterial species, its use remains limited due to the presence of variable copy numbers with sequence variation in the genomes. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequences, obtained from completely assembled whole genome and Sanger electrophoresis sequencing of cloned PCR products from Serratia fonticola GS2, were compared. Sanger sequencing produced a combination of sequences from multiple copies of 16S rRNA genes. To determine whether the variant copies of 16S rRNA genes affected Sanger sequencing, two ratios (5:5 and 8:2)…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequences of Three Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111:H8 Strains Exhibiting an Aggregation Phenotype.

Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a common source of foodborne illness. STEC O111 is among the most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups. Few completed genomes of STEC O111 strains have been reported to date. We report here the complete genomic sequences of three O111:H8 strains that display a distinct aggregation phenotype.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic Survey of Bordetella pertussis Diversity, United States, 2000-2013.

We characterized 170 complete genome assemblies from clinical Bordetella pertussis isolates representing geographic and temporal diversity in the United States. These data capture genotypic shifts, including increased pertactin deficiency, occurring amid the current pertussis disease resurgence and provide a foundation for needed research to direct future public health control strategies.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Multidrug resistance and multivirulence plasmids in enterotoxigenic and hybrid Shiga toxin-producing/enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic pigs in Switzerland.

Enterovirulent Escherichia coli infections cause significant losses in the pig industry. However, information about the structures of the virulence and multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids harboured by these strains is sparse. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing with PacBio and Illumina platforms to analyse the molecular features of the multidrug-resistant enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain 14OD0056 and the multidrug-resistant hybrid Shiga toxin-producing/enterotoxigenic E. coli (STEC/ETEC) strain 15OD0495 isolated from diarrheic pigs in Switzerland. Strain 14OD0056 possessed three virulence plasmids similar to others previously found in ETEC strains, while 15OD0495 harboured a 119-kb multivirulence IncFII/IncX1 hybrid STEC/ETEC plasmid (p15ODTXV) that co-carried…

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