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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genome analysis reveals the evolution of chloroacetanilide herbicide mineralization in Sphingomonas wittichii DC-6.

The environmental fate of the extensively used chloroacetanilide herbicides (CH) has been a cause of increasing concern in the past decade because of their carcinogenic properties. Although microbes play important roles in CH degradation, Sphingomonas wittichii DC-6 was the first reported CH-mineralizing bacterium. In this study, the complete genome of strain DC-6 was sequenced and comparative genomic analysis was performed using strain DC-6 and other three partial CH-degrading bacteria, Sphingobium quisquiliarum DC-2, Sphingobium baderi DE-13, and Sphingobium sp. MEA3-1. 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain DC-2, MEA3-1, and DE-13 are closely related and DC-6 has relatively distant genetic relationship…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Harnessing long-read amplicon sequencing to uncover NRPS and Type I PKS gene sequence diversity in polar desert soils.

The severity of environmental conditions at Earth’s frigid zones present attractive opportunities for microbial biomining due to their heightened potential as reservoirs for novel secondary metabolites. Arid soil microbiomes within the Antarctic and Arctic circles are remarkably rich in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, bacterial phyla known to be prolific producers of natural products. Yet the diversity of secondary metabolite genes within these cold, extreme environments remain largely unknown. Here, we employed amplicon sequencing using PacBio RS II, a third generation long-read platform, to survey over 200 soils spanning twelve east Antarctic and high Arctic sites for natural product-encoding genes, specifically targeting…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Distribution and characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading activity and AHL lactonase gene (qsdS) in Sphingopyxis.

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading enzyme is identified from the various environments and applied for quorum-sensing inhibition. In this study, we isolated two AHL-degrading strains, Sphingopyxis sp. EG6 and FD7, from the industrial cooling water samples. When the eight Sphingopyxis type strains were checked for the AHL-degrading activity, two strains, Sphingopyxis alaskensis DSM 13593 and Sphingopyxis bauzanensis DSM 22271, showed high AHL-degrading activity. The complete genome sequences of EG6 and FD7 revealed the presence of gene homolog of qsdS, which encodes AHL-lactonase in Sphingomonas ursincola. The qsdS gene is seated between putative gene homologs involved in 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large (leuC2) and small…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.

A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic Characterization of a Newly Isolated Rhizobacteria Sphingomonas panacis Reveals Plant Growth Promoting Effect to Rice

This article reports the full genome sequence of Sphingomonas panacis DCY99T (=KCTC 42347T =JCM30806T), which is a Gram-negative rod-shaped, non-spore forming, motile bacterium isolated from rusty ginseng root in South Korea. A draft genome of S. panacis DCY99T and a single circular plasmid were generated using the PacBio platform. Antagonistic activity experiment showed S. panacis DCY99T has the plant growth promoting effect. Thus, the genome sequence of S. panacis DCY99T may contribute to biotechnological application of the genus Sphingomonas in agriculture.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Modulation of metabolome and bacterial community in whole crop corn silage by inoculating homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri.

The present study investigated the species level based microbial community and metabolome in corn silage inoculated with or without homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri using the PacBio SMRT Sequencing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). Chopped whole crop corn was treated with (1) deionized water (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum, or (3) Lactobacillus buchneri. The chopped whole crop corn was ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags containing 300 g of fresh forge for 90 days, with three replicates for each treatment. The results showed that a total of 979 substances were detected, and 316 different metabolites were identified. Some metabolites with…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Biosynthesis and function of modified bases in bacteria and their viruses.

Naturally occurring modification of the canonical A, G, C, and T bases can be found in the DNA of cellular organisms and viruses from all domains of life. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are a particularly rich but still underexploited source of such modified variant nucleotides. The modifications conserve the coding and base-pairing functions of DNA, but add regulatory and protective functions. In prokaryotes, modified bases appear primarily to be part of an arms race between bacteriophages (and other genomic parasites) and their hosts, although, as in eukaryotes, some modifications have been adapted to convey epigenetic information. The first half of this…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genome sequencing of strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 with ginseng biotransformation ability.

Biotransformation for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginsenosides is getting more and more attractions. Strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 isolated from ginseng soil samples was identified to produce enzymes contributing to its excellent biotransformation activity against ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng. Based on phylogenetic tree and homology analysis, the strain can be designated as Cellulosimicrobium sp. Genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina Miseq to explore the functional genes involved in ginsenoside transformation. The draft genome of Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 encoded 3450 open reading frames, 51 tRNA, and 9 rRNA. All ORFs were annotated using NCBI BLAST with non-redundant…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Enzymatic degradation of phenazines can generate energy and protect sensitive organisms from toxicity.

Diverse bacteria, including several Pseudomonas species, produce a class of redox-active metabolites called phenazines that impact different cell types in nature and disease. Phenazines can affect microbial communities in both positive and negative ways, where their presence is correlated with decreased species richness and diversity. However, little is known about how the concentration of phenazines is modulated in situ and what this may mean for the fitness of members of the community. Through culturing of phenazine-degrading mycobacteria, genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and molecular analysis, we identified several conserved genes that are important for the degradation of three Pseudomonas-derived phenazines: phenazine-1-carboxylic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1(T).

Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1(T) is a species in the family Sphingomonadaceae. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of the N. pentaromativorans US6-1(T) and nine genome-sequenced strains in the genus Novosphingobium, the similarity ranged from 93.9 to 99.9 % and the highest similarity was found with Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y (99.9 %), whereas the ANI value based on genomes ranged from 70.9 to 93 % and the highest value was 93 %. This microorganism was isolated from muddy coastal bay sediments where the environment is heavily polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It was previously shown to be capable of degrading multiple…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and description of the anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium Tolumonas lignolytica sp. nov.

Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1(T) are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involved…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The oxygen-independent metabolism of cyclic monoterpenes in Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen.

The facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen utilizes acyclic, monocyclic and bicyclic monoterpenes as sole carbon source under oxic as well as anoxic conditions. A biotransformation pathway of the acyclic ß-myrcene required linalool dehydratase-isomerase as initial enzyme acting on the hydrocarbon. An in-frame deletion mutant did not use myrcene, but was able to grow on monocyclic monoterpenes. The genome sequence and a comparative proteome analysis together with a random transposon mutagenesis were conducted to identify genes involved in the monocyclic monoterpene metabolism. Metabolites accumulating in cultures of transposon and in-frame deletion mutants disclosed the degradation pathway.Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen oxidizes the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2.

In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methods for genome-wide methylome profiling of Campylobacter jejuni.

Methylation has a profound role in the regulation of numerous biological processes in bacteria including virulence. The study of methylation in bacteria has greatly advanced thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies. These technologies have expedited the process of uncovering unique features of many bacterial methylomes such as characterizing previously uncharacterized methyltransferases, cataloging genome-wide DNA methylations in bacteria, identifying the frequency of methylation at particular genomic loci, and revealing regulatory roles of methylation in the biology of various bacterial species. For instance, methylation has been cited as a potential source for the pathogenicity differences observed in C. jejuni strains with syntenic genomes…

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