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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Integrative biology of a fungus: Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing to interrogate the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome of Neurospora crassa.

PacBio SMRT Sequencing has the unique ability to directly detect base modifications in addition to the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Because eukaryotes use base modifications to regulate gene expression, the absence or presence of epigenetic events relative to the location of genes is critical to elucidate the function of the modification. Therefore an integrated approach that combines multiple omic-scale assays is necessary to study complex organisms. Here, we present an integrated analysis of three sequencing experiments: 1) DNA sequencing, 2) base-modification detection, and 3) Iso-seq analysis, in Neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus that has been used to make many landmark…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Long-read assembly of the Aedes aegypti Aag2 cell line genome resolves ancient endogenous viral elements

Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue Virus by Aedes aegypti causes debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever and organ failure, but mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for this viral tolerance are unclear. Recent publications highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are predicted to be ancient, and at least some EVEs are under…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Long-read assembly of the Aedes aegypti Aag2 cell line genome resolves ancient endogenous viral elements

Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue and Zika viruses by Aedes aegypti causes widespread and debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, and encephalitis; and yet, mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for tolerance to viral infection in mosquitoes are still unclear. Recent publications have highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Immune regions are no longer incomprehensible with SMRT Sequencing

The complex immune regions of the genome, including MHC and KIR, contain large copy number variants (CNVs), a high density of genes, hyper-polymorphic gene alleles, and conserved extended haplotypes (CEH) with enormous linkage disequilibrium (LDs). This level of complexity and inherent biases of short-read sequencing make it challenging for extracting immune region haplotype information from reference-reliant, shotgun sequencing and GWAS methods. As NGS based genome and exome sequencing and SNP arrays have become a routine for population studies, numerous efforts are being made for developing software to extract and or impute the immune gene information from these datasets. Despite these…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Applying Sequel to Genomic Datasets

De novo assembly is a large part of JGI’s analysis portfolio. Repetitive DNA sequences are abundant in a wide range of organisms we sequence and pose a significant technical challenge for assembly. We are interested in long read technologies capable of spanning genomic repeats to produce better assemblies. We currently have three RS II and two Sequel PacBio machines. RS II machines are primarily used for fungal and microbial genome assembly as well as synthetic biology validation. Between microbes and fungi we produce hundreds of PacBio libraries a year and for throughput reasons the vast majority of these are >10…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

De novo assembly and preliminary annotation of the Schizocardium californicum genome

Animals in the phylum Hemichordata have provided key understanding of the origins and development of body patterning and nervous system organization. However, efforts to sequence and assemble the genomes of highly heterozygous non-model organisms have proven to be difficult with traditional short read approaches. Long repetitive DNA structures, extensive structural variation between haplotypes in polyploid species, and large genome sizes are limiting factors to achieving highly contiguous genome assemblies. Here we present the highly contiguous de novo assembly and preliminary annotation of an indirect developing hemichordate genome, Schizocardium californicum, using SMRT Sequening long reads.

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Improving the reference with a diversity panel of sequence-resolved structural variation

Although the accuracy of the human reference genome is critical for basic and clinical research, structural variants (SVs) have been difficult to assess because data capable of resolving them have been limited. To address potential bias, we sequenced a diversity panel of nine human genomes to high depth using long-read, single-molecule, real-time sequencing data. Systematically identifying and merging SVs =50 bp in length for these nine and one public genome yielded 83,909 sequence-resolved insertions, deletions, and inversions. Among these, 2,839 (2.0 Mbp) are shared among all discovery genomes with an additional 13,349 (6.9 Mbp) present in the majority of humans,…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: Sequencing structural variants for disease gene discovery and population genetics

Structural variants (SVs, differences >50 base pairs) account for most of the base pairs that differ between two human genomes, and are known to cause over 1,000 genetic disorders including ALS, schizophrenia, and hereditary cancer. Yet, SVs remain overlooked in human genetic research studies due to the limited power of short-read sequencing methods (exome and whole genome sequencing) to resolve large variants, which often involve repetitive DNA. Recent advances in long-read sequencing have made it possible to detect the over 20,000 SVs that are now known to exist in a human genome. Corresponding advances in long-read SV calling algorithms have…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

PAG Conference: Reference-quality drosophila genome assemblies for evolutionary analysis of previously inaccessible genomic regions

In this presentation, Andrew Clark from Cornell University describes work from a collaboration with Manyuan Long of the University of Chicago and Rod Wing of the University of Arizona to look at heterochromatic regions with long simple satellite repeats in drosophila genomes. The group used PacBio sequencing to create new genome assemblies of 10 drosophila species, including de novo assemblies of two individual flies using as little as 26 ng of gDNA.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

User Group Meeting: Sequencing chemistry & application updates

To start Day 1 of the PacBio User Group Meeting, Jonas Korlach, PacBio CSO, provides an update on the latest releases and performance metrics for the Sequel II System. The longest reads generated on this system with the SMRT Cell 8M now go beyond 175,000 bases, while maintaining extremely high accuracy. HiFi mode, for example, uses circular consensus sequencing to achieve accuracy of Q40 or even Q50.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: Sequencing 101 – How long-read sequencing improves access to genetic information

In this webinar, Kristin Mars, Sequencing Specialist, PacBio, presents an introduction to PacBio’s technology and its applications followed by a panel discussion among sequencing experts. The panel discussion addresses such things as what long reads are and how are they useful, what differentiates PacBio long-read sequencing from other technologies, and the applications PacBio offers and how they can benefit scientific research.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Improved assembly and variant detection of a haploid human genome using single-molecule, high-fidelity long reads.

The sequence and assembly of human genomes using long-read sequencing technologies has revolutionized our understanding of structural variation and genome organization. We compared the accuracy, continuity, and gene annotation of genome assemblies generated from either high-fidelity (HiFi) or continuous long-read (CLR) datasets from the same complete hydatidiform mole human genome. We find that the HiFi sequence data assemble an additional 10% of duplicated regions and more accurately represent the structure of tandem repeats, as validated with orthogonal analyses. As a result, an additional 5 Mbp of pericentromeric sequences are recovered in the HiFi assembly, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Tandem repeats lead to sequence assembly errors and impose multi-level challenges for genome and protein databases.

The widespread occurrence of repetitive stretches of DNA in genomes of organisms across the tree of life imposes fundamental challenges for sequencing, genome assembly, and automated annotation of genes and proteins. This multi-level problem can lead to errors in genome and protein databases that are often not recognized or acknowledged. As a consequence, end users working with sequences with repetitive regions are faced with ‘ready-to-use’ deposited data whose trustworthiness is difficult to determine, let alone to quantify. Here, we provide a review of the problems associated with tandem repeat sequences that originate from different stages during the sequencing-assembly-annotation-deposition workflow, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosome-length haplotigs for yak and cattle from trio binning assembly of an F1 hybrid

Background Assemblies of diploid genomes are generally unphased, pseudo-haploid representations that do not correctly reconstruct the two parental haplotypes present in the individual sequenced. Instead, the assembly alternates between parental haplotypes and may contain duplications in regions where the parental haplotypes are sufficiently different. Trio binning is an approach to genome assembly that uses short reads from both parents to classify long reads from the offspring according to maternal or paternal haplotype origin, and is thus helped rather than impeded by heterozygosity. Using this approach, it is possible to derive two assemblies from an individual, accurately representing both parental contributions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Chinese chestnut genome: a reference for species restoration

Forest tree species are increasingly subject to severe mortalities from exotic pests, diseases, and invasive organisms, accelerated by climate change. Forest health issues are threatening multiple species and ecosystem sustainability globally. While sources of resistance may be available in related species, or among surviving trees, introgression of resistance genes into threatened tree species in reasonable time frames requires genome-wide breeding tools. Asian species of chestnut (Castanea spp.) are being employed as donors of disease resistance genes to restore native chestnut species in North America and Europe. To aid in the restoration of threatened chestnut species, we present the assembly of…

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