June 1, 2021  |  

Unique haplotype structure determination in human genome using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing of targeted full-length fosmids.

Determination of unique individual haplotypes is an essential first step toward understanding how identical genotypes having different phases lead to different biological interpretations of function, phenotype, and disease. Genome-wide methods for identifying individual genetic variation have been limited in their ability to acquire phased, extended, and complete genomic sequences that are long enough to assemble haplotypes with high confidence. We explore a recombineering approach for isolation and sequencing of a tiling of targeted fosmids to capture interesting regions from human genome. Each individual fosmid contains large genomic fragments (~35?kb) that are sequenced with long-read SMRT technology to generate contiguous long reads. These long reads can be easily de novo assembled for targeted haplotype resolution within an individual’s genomes. The P5-C3 chemistry for SMRT Sequencing generated contiguous, full-length fosmid sequences of 30 to 40 kb in a single read, allowing assembly of resolved haplotypes with minimal data processing. The phase preserved in fosmid clones spanned at least two heterozygous variant loci, providing the essential detail of precise haplotype structures. We show complete assembly of haplotypes for various targeted loci, including the complex haplotypes of the KIR locus (~150 to 200 kb) and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs) of the MHC region. This method is easily applicable to other regions of the human genome, as well as other genomes.


June 1, 2021  |  

Targeted SMRT Sequencing and phasing using Roche NimbleGen’s SeqCap EZ enrichment

As a cost-effective alternative to whole genome human sequencing, targeted sequencing of specific regions, such as exomes or panels of relevant genes, has become increasingly common. These methods typically include direct PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of interest, or the capture of these targets via probe-based hybridization. Commonly, these approaches are designed to amplify or capture exonic regions and thereby result in amplicons or fragments that are a few hundred base pairs in length, a length that is well-addressed with short-read sequencing technologies. These approaches typically provide very good coverage and can identify SNPs in the targeted region, but are unable to haplotype these variants. Here we describe a targeted sequencing workflow that combines Roche NimbleGen’s SeqCap EZ enrichment technology with Pacific Biosciences’ SMRT Sequencing to provide a more comprehensive view of variants and haplotype information over multi-kilobase regions. While the SeqCap EZ technology is typically used to capture 200 bp fragments, we demonstrate that 6 kb fragments can also be utilized to enrich for long fragments that extend beyond the targeted capture site and well into (and often across) the flanking intronic regions. When combined with the long reads of SMRT Sequencing, multi-kilobase regions of the human genome can be phased and variants detected in exons, introns and intergenic regions.


June 1, 2021  |  

Highly sensitive and cost-effective detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer variants in FFPE samples using Multiplicom’s MASTR technology & Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing

Specific mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been shown to be associated with several types of cancers. Molecular profiling of cancer samples requires assays capable of accurately detecting the entire spectrum of variants, including those at relatively low frequency. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been a powerful tool for researchers to better understand cancer genetics. Here we describe a targeted re-sequencing workflow that combines barcoded amplification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 exons from 12 FFPE tumor samples using Multiplicom’s MASTR technology with PacBio SMRT Sequencing. This combination allows for the accurate detection of variants in a cost-effective and timely manner.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing for the detection of low-frequency somatic variants

The sensitivity, speed, and reduced cost associated with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have made them indispensable for the molecular profiling of cancer samples. For effective use, it is critical that the NGS methods used are not only robust but can also accurately detect low frequency somatic mutations. Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing offers several advantages, including the ability to sequence single molecules with very high accuracy (>QV40) using the circular consensus sequencing (CCS) approach. The availability of genetically defined, human genomic reference standards provides an industry standard for the development and quality control of molecular assays. Here we characterize SMRT Sequencing for the detection of low-frequency somatic variants using the Quantitative Multiplex DNA Reference Standard from Horizon Diagnostics, combined with amplification of the variants using the Multiplicom Tumor Hotspot MASTR Plus assay. The Horizon Diagnostics reference sample contains precise allelic frequencies from 1% to 24.5% for major oncology targets verified using digital PCR. It recapitulates the complexity of tumor composition and serves as a well-characterized control. The control sample was amplified using the Multiplicom Tumor Hotspot Master Plus assay that targets 252 amplicons (121-254 bp) from 26 relevant cancer genes, which includes all 11 variants in the control sample. The amplicons were sequenced and analyzed using SMRT Sequencing to identify the variants and determine the observed frequency. The random error profile and high accuracy CCS reads make it possible to accurately detect low frequency somatic variants.


June 1, 2021  |  

Highly sensitive and cost-effective detection of somatic cancer variants using single-molecule, real-time sequencing

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies allow for molecular profiling of cancer samples with high sensitivity and speed at reduced cost. For efficient profiling of cancer samples, it is important that the NGS methods used are not only robust, but capable of accurately detecting low-frequency somatic mutations. Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing offers several advantages, including the ability to sequence single molecules with very high accuracy (>QV40) using the circular consensus sequencing (CCS) approach. The availability of genetically defined, human genomic reference standards provides an industry standard for the development and quality control of molecular assays for studying cancer variants. Here we characterize SMRT Sequencing for the detection of low-frequency somatic variants using the Quantitative Multiplex DNA Reference Standards from Horizon Discovery, combined with amplification of the variants using the Multiplicom Tumor Hotspot MASTR Plus assay. First, we sequenced a reference standard containing precise allelic frequencies from 1% to 24.5% for major oncology targets verified using digital PCR. This reference material recapitulates the complexity of tumor composition and serves as a well-characterized control. The control sample was amplified using the Multiplicom Tumor Hotspot MASTR Plus assay that targets 252 amplicons (121-254 bp) from 26 relevant cancer genes, which includes all 11 variants in the control sample. Next, we sequenced control samples prepared by SeraCare Life Sciences, which contained a defined mutation at allelic frequencies from 10% down to 0.1%. The wild type and mutant amplicons were serially diluted, sequenced and analyzed using SMRT Sequencing to identify the variants and determine the observed frequency. The random error profile and high-accuracy CCS reads make it possible to accurately detect low-frequency somatic variants.


June 1, 2021  |  

Resolving KIR genotypes and haplotypes simultaneously using Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing

The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are widely studied due to the critical role they play in coordinating the innate immune response to infection and disease. Highly accurate, contiguous, long reads, like those generated by SMRT Sequencing, when combined with target-enrichment protocols, provide a straightforward strategy for generating complete de novo assembled KIR haplotypes. We have explored two different methods to capture the KIR region; one applying the use of fosmid clones and one using Nimblegen capture.


June 1, 2021  |  

Multiplex target enrichment using barcoded multi-kilobase fragments and probe-based capture technologies

Target enrichment capture methods allow scientists to rapidly interrogate important genomic regions of interest for variant discovery, including SNPs, gene isoforms, and structural variation. Custom targeted sequencing panels are important for characterizing heterogeneous, complex diseases and uncovering the genetic basis of inherited traits with more uniform coverage when compared to PCR-based strategies. With the increasing availability of high-quality reference genomes, customized gene panels are readily designed with high specificity to capture genomic regions of interest, thus enabling scientists to expand their research scope from a single individual to larger cohort studies or population-wide investigations. Coupled with PacBio® long-read sequencing, these technologies can capture 5 kb fragments of genomic DNA (gDNA), which are useful for interrogating intronic, exonic, and regulatory regions, characterizing complex structural variations, distinguishing between gene duplications and pseudogenes, and interpreting variant haplotyes. In addition, SMRT® Sequencing offers the lowest GC-bias and can sequence through repetitive regions. We demonstrate the additional insights possible by using in-depth long read capture sequencing for key immunology, drug metabolizing, and disease causing genes such as HLA, filaggrin, and cancer associated genes.


June 1, 2021  |  

Characterization of the Poly-T variants in the TOMM40 gene using PacBio long reads

Genes associated with several neurological disorders have been shown to be highly polymorphic. Targeted sequencing of these genes using NGS technologies is a powerful way to increase the cost-effectiveness of variant discovery and detection. However, for a comprehensive view of these target genes, it is necessary to have complete and uniform coverage across regions of interest. Unfortunately, short-read sequencing technologies are not ideal for these types of studies as they are prone to mis-mapping and often fail to span repetitive regions. Targeted sequencing with PacBio long reads provides the unique advantage of single-molecule observations of complex genomic regions. PacBio long reads not only provide continuous sequence data though polymorphic or repetitive regions, but also have no GC bias. Here we describe the characterization of the poly-T locus in TOMM40, a gene known to be associated with progression to Alzheimer’s, using PacBio long reads. Probes were designed to capture a 20 kb region comprising the TOMM40 and ApoE genes. Target regions were captured in multiple cell lines and sequencing libraries made using standard sample preparation methods. We will present our results on the poly-T structural variants that we observed in TOMM40 in these cell lines. We will also present our results on probe design optimization and barcoding strategies for a cost-effective solution.


June 1, 2021  |  

Enrichment of unamplified DNA and long-read SMRT Sequencing to unlock repeat expansion disorders

Nucleotide repeat expansions are a major cause of neurological and neuromuscular disease in humans, however, the nature of these genomic regions makes characterizing them extremely challenging. Accurate DNA sequencing of repeat expansions using short-read sequencing technologies is difficult, as short-read technologies often cannot read through regions of low sequence complexity. Additionally, these short reads do not span the entire region of interest and therefore sequence assembly is required. Lastly, most target enrichment methods are reliant upon amplification which adds the additional caveat of PCR bias. We have developed a novel, amplification-free enrichment technique that employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system for specific targeting of individual human genes. This method, in conjunction with PacBio’s long reads and uniform coverage, enables sequencing of complex genomic regions that cannot be investigated with other technologies. Using human genomic DNA samples and this strategy, we have successfully targeted the loci of Huntington’s Disease (HTT; CAG repeat), Fragile X (FMR1; CGG repeat), ALS (C9orf72; GGGGCC repeat), and Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10; variable ATTCT repeat) for examination. With this data, we demonstrate the ability to isolate hundreds of individual on-target molecules in a single SMRT Cell and accurately sequence through long repeat stretches, regardless of the extreme GC-content. The method is compatible with multiplexing of multiple targets and multiple samples in a single reaction. This technique also captures native DNA molecules for sequencing, allowing for the possibility of direct detection and characterization of epigenetic signatures.


June 1, 2021  |  

Target enrichment using a neurology panel for 12 barcoded genomic DNA samples on the PacBio SMRT Sequencing platform

Target enrichment is a powerful tool for studies involved in understanding polymorphic SNPs with phasing, tandem repeats, and structural variations. With increasing availability of reference genomes, researchers can easily design a cost-effective targeted investigation with custom probes specific to regions of interest. Using PacBio long-read technology in conjunction with probe capture, we were able to sequence multi-kilobase enriched regions to fully investigate intronic and exonic regions, distinguish haplotypes, and characterize structural variations. Furthermore, we demonstrate this approach is advantageous for studying complex genomic regions previously inaccessible through other sequencing platforms. In the present work, 12 barcoded genomic DNA (gDNA) samples were sheared to 6 kb for target enrichment analysis using the Neurology panel provided by Roche NimbleGen. Probe-captured DNA was used to make SMRTbell libraries for SMRT Sequencing on the PacBio RS II. Our results demonstrate the ability to multiplex 12 samples and achieve 1300x enrichment of targeted regions. In addition, we achieved an even representation of on-target rate of 70% across the 12 barcoded genomic DNA samples.


June 1, 2021  |  

Targeted SMRT Sequencing of difficult regions of the genome using a Cas9, non-amplification based method

Targeted sequencing has proven to be an economical means of obtaining sequence information for one or more defined regions of a larger genome. However, most target enrichment methods are reliant upon some form of amplification. Amplification removes the epigenetic marks present in native DNA, and some genomic regions, such as those with extreme GC content and repetitive sequences, are recalcitrant to faithful amplification. Yet, a large number of genetic disorders are caused by expansions of repeat sequences. Furthermore, for some disorders, methylation status has been shown to be a key factor in the mechanism of disease. We have developed a novel, amplification-free enrichment technique that employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system for specific targeting of individual human genes. This method, in conjunction with SMRT Sequencing’s long reads, high consensus accuracy, and uniform coverage, allows the sequencing of complex genomic regions that cannot be investigated with other technologies.


June 1, 2021  |  

Targeted enrichment without amplification and SMRT Sequencing of repeat-expansion disease causative genomic regions

Targeted sequencing has proven to be an economical means of obtaining sequence information for one or more defined regions of a larger genome. However, most target enrichment methods are reliant upon some form of amplification. Amplification removes the epigenetic marks present in native DNA, and some genomic regions, such as those with extreme GC content and repetitive sequences, are recalcitrant to faithful amplification. Yet, a large number of genetic disorders are caused by expansions of repeat sequences. Furthermore, for some disorders, methylation status has been shown to be a key factor in the mechanism of disease. We have developed a novel, amplification-free enrichment technique that employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system for specific targeting of individual human genes. This method, in conjunction with SMRT Sequencing’s long reads, high consensus accuracy, and uniform coverage, allows the sequencing of complex genomic regions that cannot be investigated with other technologies. Using human genomic DNA samples and this strategy, we have successfully targeted the loci of a number of repeat expansion disorders (HTT, FMR1, ATXN10, C9orf72). With this data, we demonstrate the ability to isolate hundreds of individual on-target molecules and accurately sequence through long repeat stretches, regardless of the extreme GC-content, followed by accurate sequencing on a single PacBio RS II SMRT Cell or Sequel SMRT Cell 1M. The method is compatible with multiplexing of multiple targets and multiple samples in a single reaction. Furthermore, this technique also preserves native DNA molecules for sequencing, allowing for the possibility of direct detection and characterization of epigenetic signatures. We demonstrate detection of 5-mC in human promoter sequences and CpG islands.


June 1, 2021  |  

Amplification-free targeted enrichment and SMRT Sequencing of repeat-expansion genomic regions

Targeted sequencing has proven to be an economical means of obtaining sequence information for one or more defined regions of a larger genome. However, most target enrichment methods are reliant upon some form of amplification. Amplification removes the epigenetic marks present in native DNA, and some genomic regions, such as those with extreme GC content and repetitive sequences, are recalcitrant to faithful amplification. Yet, a large number of genetic disorders are caused by expansions of repeat sequences. Furthermore, for some disorders, methylation status has been shown to be a key factor in the mechanism of disease.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.