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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida strain 91-197, isolated from hybrid striped bass (Morone sp.) in the United States.

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is a causative bacterium of fish pasteurellosis, which has caused serious economic damage to aquaculture farms worldwide. Here, the whole-genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. piscicida 91-197, isolated in the United States, suggests that this genome consists of two chromosomes and two plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Teru et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Tracing the Enterococci from Paleozoic origins to the hospital.

We examined the evolutionary history of leading multidrug resistant hospital pathogens, the enterococci, to their origin hundreds of millions of years ago. Our goal was to understand why, among the vast diversity of gut flora, enterococci are so well adapted to the modern hospital environment. Molecular clock estimation, together with analysis of their environmental distribution, phenotypic diversity, and concordance with host fossil records, place the origins of the enterococci around the time of animal terrestrialization, 425-500 mya. Speciation appears to parallel the diversification of hosts, including the rapid emergence of new enterococcal species following the End Permian Extinction. Major drivers…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Regulation of genetic flux between bacteria by restriction-modification systems.

Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are often regarded as bacteria’s innate immune systems, protecting cells from infection by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Their diversification has been recently associated with the emergence of particularly virulent lineages. However, we have previously found more R-M systems in genomes carrying more MGEs. Furthermore, it has been suggested that R-M systems might favor genetic transfer by producing recombinogenic double-stranded DNA ends. To test whether R-M systems favor or disfavor genetic exchanges, we analyzed their frequency with respect to the inferred events of homologous recombination and horizontal gene transfer within 79 bacterial species. Genetic exchanges were more frequent…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Minimap and miniasm: fast mapping and de novo assembly for noisy long sequences.

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore technologies (ONT) produce reads over 10?kb in length, which have enabled high-quality genome assembly at an affordable cost. However, at present, long reads have an error rate as high as 10-15%. Complex and computationally intensive pipelines are required to assemble such reads.We present a new mapper, minimap and a de novo assembler, miniasm, for efficiently mapping and assembling SMRT and ONT reads without an error correction stage. They can often assemble a sequencing run of bacterial data into a single contig in a few minutes, and assemble 45-fold Caenorhabditis elegans data…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Co-infection and emergence of rifamycin resistance during a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

Clostridium difficile (Peptoclostridium difficile) is a common health care associated infection with a disproportionately high incidence in elderly patients. Disease symptoms range from mild diarrhoea through to life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Around 20% of patients may suffer recurrent disease which often requires re-hospitalisation of patients.C. difficile was isolated from stool samples from a patient with two recurrent C. difficile infections. PCR-ribotyping, whole genome sequencing and phenotypic assays were used to characterise these isolates.Genotypic and phenotypic screening of C. difficile isolates revealed multiple PCR-ribotypes present, and the emergence of rifamycin resistance during the infection cycle.Understanding both the clinical and bacterial factors…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection.

Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18?500 years BP (12?355-24?757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism. Evolution within the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon serotype O1b lineage has been slow, with 63 SNPs describing the variance over 27 years. Isolates from the prevailing lineage are poorly/non-motile compared to a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into a sustained national outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

In 2014, a sustained outbreak of yersiniosis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis occurred across all major cities in New Zealand (NZ), with a total of 220 laboratory-confirmed cases, representing one of the largest ever reported outbreaks of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of outbreak-associated isolates to produce the largest population analysis to date of Y. pseudotuberculosis, giving us unprecedented capacity to understand the emergence and evolution of the outbreak clone. Multivariate analysis incorporating our genomic and clinical epidemiological data strongly suggested a single point-source contamination of the food chain, with subsequent nationwide distribution of contaminated produce. We additionally…

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