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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Plant and Animal Sciences Brochure: A comprehensive view of genetic diversity

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT®) Sequencing combines long reads with uniform coverage to provide uniquely comprehensive views of plant and animal genomes and transcriptomes. High-quality genome assemblies and evidence-based annotations promote improved genetic marker development, discovery of novel genes, and structural variation characterization.

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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Application Brief: Long-read RNA sequencing – Best Practices

With Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Sequel Systems, you can easily and affordably sequence complete transcript isoforms in genes of interest or across the entire transcriptome. The Iso-Seq method allows users to generate full-length cDNA sequences up to 10 kb in length — with no assembly required — to confidently characterize full-length transcript isoforms.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

deSALT: fast and accurate long transcriptomic read alignment with de Bruijn graph-based index

Long-read RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is promising to transcriptomics studies, however, the alignment of the reads is still a fundamental but non-trivial task due to the sequencing errors and complicated gene structures. We propose deSALT, a tailored two-pass long RNA-seq read alignment approach, which constructs graph-based alignment skeletons to sensitively infer exons, and use them to generate spliced reference sequence to produce refined alignments. deSALT addresses several difficult issues, such as small exons, serious sequencing errors and consensus spliced alignment. Benchmarks demonstrate that this approach has a better ability to produce high-quality full-length alignments, which has enormous potentials to transcriptomics studies.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-Read RNA Sequencing Identifies Alternative Splice Variants in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Tumor-Specific Isoforms.

Alternative splicing (AS) allows generation of cell type-specific mRNA transcripts and contributes to hallmarks of cancer. Genome-wide analysis for AS in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, is limited. We sought to obtain a comprehensive AS landscape in HCC and define tumor-associated variants. Single-molecule real-time long-read RNA sequencing was performed on patient-derived HCC cells, and presence of splice junctions was defined by SpliceMap-LSC-IDP algorithm. We obtained an all-inclusive map of annotated AS variants and further discovered 362 alternative spliced variants that are not previously reported in any database (neither RefSeq nor GENCODE). They were mostly derived from intron retention and early…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Targeted Long-Read RNA Sequencing Demonstrates Transcriptional Diversity Driven by Splice-Site Variation in MYBPC3.

To date, clinical sequencing has focused on genomic DNA using targeted panels and exome sequencing. Sequencing of a large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort revealed that positive identification of a disease-associated variant was returned in only 32% of patients, with an additional 15% receiving inconclusive results. When genome sequencing fails to reveal causative variants, the transcriptome may provide additional diagnostic clarity. A recent study examining patients with genetically undiagnosed muscle disorders found that RNA sequencing, when used as a complement to exome and whole genome sequencing, had an overall diagnosis rate of 35%.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Single-Molecule Sequencing: Towards Clinical Applications.

In the past several years, single-molecule sequencing platforms, such as those by Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore Technologies, have become available to researchers and are currently being tested for clinical applications. They offer exceptionally long reads that permit direct sequencing through regions of the genome inaccessible or difficult to analyze by short-read platforms. This includes disease-causing long repetitive elements, extreme GC content regions, and complex gene loci. Similarly, these platforms enable structural variation characterization at previously unparalleled resolution and direct detection of epigenetic marks in native DNA. Here, we review how these technologies are opening up new clinical avenues that…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Unveiling novel targets of paclitaxel resistance by single molecule long-read RNA sequencing in breast cancer.

RNA sequencing has become one of the most common technology to study transcriptomes in cancer, whereas its length limits its application on alternative splicing (AS) events and novel isoforms. Firstly, we applied single molecule long-read RNA sequencing (Iso-seq) and de novo assembly with short-read RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in both wild type (231-WT) and paclitaxel resistant type (231-PTX) of human breast cancer cell MDA-MBA-231. The two sequencing technology provide both the accurate transcript sequences and the deep transcript coverage. Then we combined shor-read and long-read RNA-seq to analyze alternative events and novel isoforms. Last but not the least, we selected BAK1…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-read assembly of the Chinese rhesus macaque genome and identification of ape-specific structural variants.

We present a high-quality de novo genome assembly (rheMacS) of the Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) using long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding approaches. Compared to the current Indian rhesus macaque reference genome (rheMac8), rheMacS increases sequence contiguity 75-fold, closing 21,940 of the remaining assembly gaps (60.8 Mbp). We improve gene annotation by generating more than two million full-length transcripts from ten different tissues by long-read RNA sequencing. We sequence resolve 53,916 structural variants (96% novel) and identify 17,000 ape-specific structural variants (ASSVs) based on comparison to ape genomes. Many ASSVs map within ChIP-seq predicted enhancer regions where apes and macaque…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Sequence properties of certain GC rich avian genes, their origins and absence from genome assemblies: case studies.

More and more eukaryotic genomes are sequenced and assembled, most of them presented as a complete model in which missing chromosomal regions are filled by Ns and where a few chromosomes may be lacking. Avian genomes often contain sequences with high GC content, which has been hypothesized to be at the origin of many missing sequences in these genomes. We investigated features of these missing sequences to discover why some may not have been integrated into genomic libraries and/or sequenced.The sequences of five red jungle fowl cDNA models with high GC content were used as queries to search publicly available…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Getting the Entire Message: Progress in Isoform Sequencing

The advent of second-generation sequencing and its application to RNA sequencing has revolutionized the field of genomics by allowing the quantification of expression of entire genes as well as single TSS, exons and splice sites, RNA-editing sites as well as polyA-sites. However, due to the sequencing of fragments of cDNAs these methods have not given a reliable picture of complete RNA isoforms. Third-generation sequencing has filled this gap and allows end-to-end sequencing of entire RNA/cDNA molecules. This approach to transcriptomics has been a ‘niche’ technology for a couple of years but now is becoming mainstream with many different applications. Here,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-Read Sequencing Emerging in Medical Genetics

The wide implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the field of medical genetics. However, the short read lengths of currently used sequencing approaches pose a limitation for identification of structural variants, sequencing repetitive regions, phasing alleles and distinguishing highly homologous genomic regions. These limitations may significantly contribute to the diagnostic gap in patients with genetic disorders who have undergone standard NGS, like whole exome or even genome sequencing. Now, the emerging long-read sequencing (LRS) technologies may offer improvements in the characterization of genetic variation and regions that are difficult to assess with the currently prevailing NGS approaches. LRS…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Improved annotation of the domestic pig genome through integration of Iso-Seq and RNA-seq data.

Our understanding of the pig transcriptome is limited. RNA transcript diversity among nine tissues was assessed using poly(A) selected single-molecule long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-seq) and Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from a single White cross-bred pig. Across tissues, a total of 67,746 unique transcripts were observed, including 60.5% predicted protein-coding, 36.2% long non-coding RNA and 3.3% nonsense-mediated decay transcripts. On average, 90% of the splice junctions were supported by RNA-seq within tissue. A large proportion (80%) represented novel transcripts, mostly produced by known protein-coding genes (70%), while 17% corresponded to novel genes. On average, four transcripts per known gene (tpg) were…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: Iso-Seq analysis for plant & animal genomes – annotation evaluation & phasing

In this presentation, Elizabeth Tseng explains how PacBio’s full-length RNA Sequencing using the Iso-Seq method can characterize full-length transcripts without the need for computational transcript assembly. The Iso-Seq method is fully supported bioinformatically through PacBio’s SMRT Analysis software that outputs high-quality, full-length transcript sequences that can be used for genome annotation and novel gene discovery. Elizabeth shows that the highly accurate reads can be used to discover allelic-specific isoform expressions in transcriptome data.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

User Group Meeting: Long-read RNA Sequencing in neglected human parasites

In this PacBio User Group Meeting presentation, Nic Wheeler of University of Wisconsin-Madison, speaks about RNA sequencing for filarial nematodes associated with understudied tropical diseases. His team used Iso-Seq analysis to improve gene models and achieve better transcriptome coverage for these worms, which typically have poorly annotated and fragmented genome assemblies. While getting enough RNA to study is a technical challenge, the group still managed to generate full-length isoforms, many of which were novel or contained novel junctions.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: Discover full-length RNA sequencing – No assembly required

In this webinar we present Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Iso-Seq method, which allow you to generate full-length cDNA sequences — no assembly required — to characterize transcript isoforms within targeted genes or across an entire transcriptome. The presenters share how the Iso-Seq method: (1) Provides high quality, full-length transcript sequences of up to 15 kb; (2) Allows for one-day library prep on a single SMRT Cell 8M to comprehensively characterize a whole transcriptome; (3) Facilitates discovery of alternative splicing events, fusion gene detection, and allelic specific isoform detection; and (4) Enables discovery of potential cancer-specific isoforms in…

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