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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Galactofuranose in Mycoplasma mycoides is important for membrane integrity and conceals adhesins but does not contribute to serum resistance.

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) and subsp. mycoides (Mmm) are important ruminant pathogens worldwide causing diseases such as pleuropneumonia, mastitis and septicaemia. They express galactofuranose residues on their surface, but their role in pathogenesis has not yet been determined. The M.?mycoides genomes contain up to several copies of the glf gene, which encodes an enzyme catalysing the last step in the synthesis of galactofuranose. We generated a deletion of the glf gene in a strain of Mmc using genome transplantation and tandem repeat endonuclease coupled cleavage (TREC) with yeast as an intermediary host for the genome editing. As expected, the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant for improving bacterial communities in the milks of cow teats with subclinical mastitis.

Teat disinfection pre- and post-milking is important for the overall health and hygiene of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel probiotic lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant based on changes in somatic cell count (SCC) and profiling of the bacterial community. A total of 69 raw milk samples were obtained from eleven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows over 12 days of teat dipping in China. Single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was employed to profile changes in the bacterial community during the cleaning protocol and to compare the efficacy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Tn6450, a novel multidrug resistance transposon characterized in a Proteus mirabilis isolate from chicken in China.

A novel 65.8-kb multidrug resistance transposon, designated Tn6450, was characterized in a Proteus mirabilis isolate from chicken in China. Tn6450 contains 18 different antimicrobial resistance genes, including cephalosporinase gene blaDHA-1 and fluoroquinolone resistance genes qnrA1 and aac(6′)-Ib-cr It carries a class 1/2 hybrid integron composed of intI2 and a 3′ conserved segment of the class 1 integron. Tn6450 is derived from Tn7 via acquisition of new mobile elements and resistance genes. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Basic characterization of natural transformation in a highly transformable Haemophilus parasuis strain SC1401.

Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer’s disease and pneumonia, incurring serious economic losses in the porcine industry. In this study, natural competence was investigated in H. parasuis. We found competence genes in H. parasuis homologous to ones in Haemophilus influenzae and a high consensus battery of Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP-S) regulons using bioinformatics. High rates of natural competence were found from the onset of stationary-phase growth condition to mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 0.29 to 1.735); this rapidly dropped off as cells reached mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 1.735 to 1.625). As a whole, bacteria cultured in liquid media were observed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide analysis of Mycoplasma bovirhinis GS01 reveals potential virulence factors and phylogenetic relationships.

Mycoplasma bovirhinis is a significant etiology in bovine pneumonia and mastitis, but our knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of M. bovirhinis is very limited. In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of M. bovirhinis strain GS01 isolated from the nasal swab of pneumonic calves in Gansu, China, and we found that its genome forms a 847,985 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 27.57% and with 707 protein-coding genes. The putative virulence determinants of M. bovirhinis were then analyzed. Results showed that three genomic islands and 16 putative virulence genes, including one adhesion gene enolase,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of multi-drug resistant, MCR-1 and ESBL-coproducing ST117 Escherichia coli from diseased chickens in Northeast China

An endemic multi-drug resistant ST117 E. coli isolate coproducing MCR-1 and 3 ESBL loci was, for the first time, detected from diseased chicken, Liaoning Province, in Northeast China, from 2011 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 5 unique plasmids, namely pHXH-1, pHXH-2, pHXH-3, pHXH-4 and pHXH-5). Among them, pHXH1 and pHXH4 encode ESBL, and pHXH-5 mediates MCR-1 colistin resistance. The results indicate that the potentially-national dissemination of MCR-1-positive pathogens with pan-drug resistance proceeds via food chains.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Prevalence and genomic structure of bacteriophage phi3 in human derived livestock-associated MRSA from 2000 to 2015.

Whereas the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) in animal husbandry and its transmission to humans are well documented, less is known about factors driving the epidemic spread of this zoonotic lineage within the human population. One factor could be the bacteriophage phi3, which is rarely detected in S. aureus isolates from animals but commonly found among isolates from humans, including those of the human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) CC398 clade. The proportion of phi3-carrying MRSA spa-CC011 isolates, which constitute presumptively LA-MRSA within the multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 398, was systematically assessed for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Dissemination and persistence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance encoding IncI1-blaCTXM-1 plasmid among Escherichia coli in pigs.

This study investigated the ecology, epidemiology and plasmid characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant E. coli in healthy pigs over a period of 4 years (2013-2016) following the withdrawal of ESCs. High carriage rates of ESC-resistant E. coli were demonstrated in 2013 (86.6%) and 2014 (83.3%), compared to 2015 (22%) and 2016 (8.5%). ESC resistance identified among E. coli isolates was attributed to the carriage of an IncI1 ST-3 plasmid (pCTXM1-MU2) encoding blaCTXM-1. Genomic characterisation of selected E. coli isolates (n?=?61) identified plasmid movement into multiple commensal E. coli (n?=?22 STs). Major STs included ST10, ST5440, ST453, ST2514 and ST23. A…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic and methylome analysis of non-virulent D74 and virulent Nagasaki Haemophilus parasuis isolates.

Haemophilus parasuis is a respiratory pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease. H. parasuis isolates can exhibit different virulence capabilities ranging from lethal systemic disease to subclinical carriage. To identify genomic differences between phenotypically distinct strains, we obtained the closed whole-genome sequence annotation and genome-wide methylation patterns for the highly virulent Nagasaki strain and for the non-virulent D74 strain. Evaluation of the virulence-associated genes contained within the genomes of D74 and Nagasaki led to the discovery of a large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems within both genomes. Five predicted hemolysins were identified as unique to Nagasaki and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of pathogenic and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus in commercial broiler chickens.

Macrococcus caseolyticus is generally considered to be a non-pathogenic bacterium that does not cause human or animal diseases. However, recently, a strain of M. caseolyticus (SDLY strain) that causes high mortality rates was isolated from commercial broiler chickens in China. The main pathological changes caused by SDLY included caseous exudation in cranial cavities, inflammatory infiltration, haemorrhages and multifocal necrosis in various organs. The whole genome of the SDLY strain was sequenced and was compared with that of the non-pathogenic JCSC5402 strain of M. caseolyticus. The results showed that the SDLY strain harboured a large quantity of mutations, antibiotic resistance genes and numerous…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Novel linezolid resistance plasmids in Enterococcus from food animals in the USA.

To sequence the genomes and determine the genetic mechanisms for linezolid resistance identified in three strains of Enterococcus isolated from cattle and swine caecal contents as part of the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) surveillance programme.Broth microdilution was used for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing to assess linezolid resistance. Resistance mechanisms and plasmid types were identified from data generated by WGS on Illumina® and PacBio® platforms. Conjugation experiments were performed to determine whether identified mechanisms were transmissible.Linezolid resistance plasmids containing optrA were identified in two Enterococcus faecalis isolates and one Enterococcus faecium. The E. faecium isolate also carried…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data.

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA) in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902) and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176). Several notable differences were discovered that…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or “pinkeye” in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M.…

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