Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a factory for kahalalide production. This interaction between a bacterium, an alga, and an animal highlights the importance of chemical defense in the evolution of complex symbioses.Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Whole-Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain HNBP001, Isolated from a Melioidosis Patient in Hainan, China.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei HNBP001, an epidemic strain isolated from a melioidosis patient with pneumonia in Hainan, China.Copyright © 2019 Kang et al.
Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain SGAir0924, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Outdoor Air in Singapore.
Streptomyces sp. strain SGAir0924 was isolated from outdoor air collected in Singapore. Its genome was assembled using long reads generated by single-molecule real-time sequencing. The final assembly had one chromosome of 7.65?Mb and three plasmids with an average length of 142 kb. The genome contained 6,825 protein-coding genes, 68 tRNAs, and 18 rRNAs.Copyright © 2019 Gupta et al.
Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain RKND-216, an Antibiotic Producer Isolated from Marine Sediment in Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Streptomyces sp. strain RKND-216 was isolated from marine sediment collected in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and produces a putatively novel bioactive natural product with antitubercular activity. The genome assembly consists of two contigs covering 5.61?Mb. Genome annotation identified 4,618 predicted protein-coding sequences and 19 predicted natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.Copyright © 2019 Liang et al.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence and full methylome analysis of a newly isolated, aerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive actinomycete, a strain of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris designated strain 2H.Copyright © 2019 Mankai et al.
We report the complete genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfonate-respiring, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1. The genome was assembled into a single 3.25-Mb circular chromosome with 2,680 protein-coding genes identified. Sequencing of sulfonate-metabolizing anaerobes is key for understanding sulfonate degradation and its role in the sulfur cycle.Copyright © 2019 Day et al.
Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli BE104, an MC4100 Derivative Lacking the Methionine Reductive Pathway.
In this announcement, we present the complete annotated genome sequence of an Escherichia coli MC4100 mutant strain, BE104. This strain has several methionine sulfoxide reductase gene deletions, making it ideal for studying enzymes that alter the redox state of methionine.Copyright © 2019 Anton et al.
The Genome Sequence of the Halobacterium salinarum Type Strain Is Closely Related to That of Laboratory Strains NRC-1 and R1.
High-coverage long-read sequencing of the Halobacterium salinarum type strain (91-R6) revealed a 2.17-Mb chromosome and two large plasmids (148 and 102 kb). Population heterogeneity and long repeats were observed. Strain 91-R6 and laboratory strain R1 showed 99.63% sequence identity in common chromosomal regions and only 38 strain-specific segments. This information resolves the previously uncertain relationship between type and laboratory strains.Copyright © 2019 Pfeiffer et al.
Complete Genome Sequence of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Strain CDF, a Thermophilic Bacterium Capable of Degrading Chicken Feathers.
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris strain CDF was isolated from soil and shown to have the ability to degrade chicken feathers at high temperatures. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, which is 2,595,509?bp long with 2,642 predicted genes and an average G+C content of 48.14%.Copyright © 2019 Li et al.
Relative Performance of MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) versus Sequel (Pacific Biosciences) Third-Generation Sequencing Instruments in Identification of Agricultural and Forest Fungal Pathogens.
Culture-based molecular identification methods have revolutionized detection of pathogens, yet these methods are slow and may yield inconclusive results from environmental materials. The second-generation sequencing tools have much-improved precision and sensitivity of detection, but these analyses are costly and may take several days to months. Of the third-generation sequencing techniques, the portable MinION device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) has received much attention because of its small size and possibility of rapid analysis at reasonable cost. Here, we compare the relative performances of two third-generation sequencing instruments, MinION and Sequel (Pacific Biosciences), in identification and diagnostics of fungal and oomycete pathogens from conifer (Pinaceae) needles and potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves and tubers. We demonstrate that the Sequel instrument is efficient for metabarcoding of complex samples, whereas MinION is not suited for this purpose due to a high error rate and multiple biases. However, we find that MinION can be utilized for rapid and accurate identification of dominant pathogenic organisms and other associated organisms from plant tissues following both amplicon-based and PCR-free metagenomics approaches. Using the metagenomics approach with shortened DNA extraction and incubation times, we performed the entire MinION workflow, from sample preparation through DNA extraction, sequencing, bioinformatics, and interpretation, in 2.5 h. We advocate the use of MinION for rapid diagnostics of pathogens and potentially other organisms, but care needs to be taken to control or account for multiple potential technical biases.IMPORTANCE Microbial pathogens cause enormous losses to agriculture and forestry, but current combined culturing- and molecular identification-based detection methods are too slow for rapid identification and application of countermeasures. Here, we develop new and rapid protocols for Oxford Nanopore MinION-based third-generation diagnostics of plant pathogens that greatly improve the speed of diagnostics. However, due to high error rate and technical biases in MinION, the Pacific BioSciences Sequel platform is more useful for in-depth amplicon-based biodiversity monitoring (metabarcoding) from complex environmental samples.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
The ADEP Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces hawaiiensis NRRL 15010 Reveals an Accessory clpP Gene as a Novel Antibiotic Resistance Factor.
The increasing threat posed by multiresistant bacterial pathogens necessitates the discovery of novel antibacterials with unprecedented modes of action. ADEP1, a natural compound produced by Streptomyces hawaiiensis NRRL 15010, is the prototype for a new class of acyldepsipeptide (ADEP) antibiotics. ADEP antibiotics deregulate the proteolytic core ClpP of the bacterial caseinolytic protease, thereby exhibiting potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including multiresistant pathogens. ADEP1 and derivatives, here collectively called ADEP, have been previously investigated for their antibiotic potency against different species, structure-activity relationship, and mechanism of action; however, knowledge on the biosynthesis of the natural compound and producer self-resistance have remained elusive. In this study, we identified and analyzed the ADEP biosynthetic gene cluster in S. hawaiiensis NRRL 15010, which comprises two NRPSs, genes necessary for the biosynthesis of (4S,2R)-4-methylproline, and a type II polyketide synthase (PKS) for the assembly of highly reduced polyenes. While no resistance factor could be identified within the gene cluster itself, we discovered an additional clpP homologous gene (named clpPADEP) located further downstream of the biosynthetic genes, separated from the biosynthetic gene cluster by several transposable elements. Heterologous expression of ClpPADEP in three ADEP-sensitive Streptomyces species proved its role in conferring ADEP resistance, thereby revealing a novel type of antibiotic resistance determinant.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) represent a promising new class of potent antibiotics and, at the same time, are valuable tools to study the molecular functioning of their target, ClpP, the proteolytic core of the bacterial caseinolytic protease. Here, we present a straightforward purification procedure for ADEP1 that yields substantial amounts of the pure compound in a time- and cost-efficient manner, which is a prerequisite to conveniently study the antimicrobial effects of ADEP and the operating mode of bacterial ClpP machineries in diverse bacteria. Identification and characterization of the ADEP biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces hawaiiensis NRRL 15010 enables future bioinformatics screenings for similar gene clusters and/or subclusters to find novel natural compounds with specific substructures. Most strikingly, we identified a cluster-associated clpP homolog (named clpPADEP) as an ADEP resistance gene. ClpPADEP constitutes a novel bacterial resistance factor that alone is necessary and sufficient to confer high-level ADEP resistance to Streptomyces across species.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Draft Genome Sequences of Type VI Secretion System-Encoding Vibrio fischeri Strains FQ-A001 and ES401.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) facilitates lethal competition between bacteria through direct contact. Comparative genomics has facilitated the study of these systems in Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes the squid host Euprymna scolopes Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two lethal V. fischeri strains that encode the T6SS, FQ-A001 and ES401.Copyright © 2019 Bultman et al.
Increased prevalence of Escherichia coli strains from food carrying blaNDM and mcr-1-bearing plasmids that structurally resemble those of clinical strains, China, 2015 to 2017.
Introduction: Emergence of resistance determinants of blaNDM and mcr-1 has undermined the antimicrobial effectiveness of the last line drugs carbapenems and colistin. Aim: This work aimed to assess the prevalence of blaNDM and mcr-1 in E. coli strains collected from food in Shenzhen, China, during the period 2015 to 2017. Methods: Multidrug-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from food samples. Plasmids encoding mcr-1 or blaNDM genes were characterised and compared with plasmids found in clinical isolates.ResultsAmong 1,166 non-repeated cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from 2,147 food samples, 390 and 42, respectively, were resistant to colistin and meropenem, with five strains being resistant to both agents. The rate of resistance to colistin increased significantly (p?0.01) from 26% in 2015 to 46% in 2017, and that of meropenem resistance also increased sharply from 0.3% in 2015 to 17% in 2017 (p?0.01). All meropenem-resistant strains carried a plasmid-borne blaNDM gene. Among the colistin-resistant strains, three types of mcr-1-bearing plasmids were determined. Plasmid sequencing indicated that these mcr-1 and blaNDM-bearing plasmids were structurally similar to those commonly recovered from clinical isolates. Interestingly, both mcr-1-bearing and blaNDM-bearing plasmids were transferrable to E. coli strain J53 under selection by meropenem, yet only mcr-1-bearing plasmids were transferrable under colistin selection. Conclusion: These findings might suggest that mobile elements harbouring mcr-1 and blaNDM have been acquired by animal strains and transmitted to our food products, highlighting a need to prevent a spike in the rate of drug resistant food-borne infections.
Whole Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Chlorimuron-Ethyl Degrading Bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3.
Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 is a strain of gram-negative bacteria that can degrade chlorimuron-ethyl and grow with chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole nitrogen source. The complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 was sequenced using third generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The genomic size of strain 2N3 was 5.32 Mb with a GC content of 57.33% and a total of 5156 coding genes and 112 non-coding RNAs predicted. Two hydrolases expressed by open reading frames (ORFs) 0934 and 0492 were predicted and experimentally confirmed by gene knockout to be involved in the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl. Strains of ?ORF 0934, ?ORF 0492, and wild type (WT) reached their highest growth rates after 8-10 hours in incubation. The degradation rates of chlorimuron-ethyl by both ?ORF 0934 and ?ORF 0492 decreased in comparison to the WT during the first 8 hours in culture by 25.60% and 24.74%, respectively, while strains ?ORF 0934, ?ORF 0492, and the WT reached the highest degradation rates of chlorimuron-ethyl in 36 hours of 74.56%, 90.53%, and 95.06%, respectively. This study provides scientific evidence to support the application of Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 in bioremediation to control environmental pollution.
A high-quality genome assembly from a single, field-collected spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using the PacBio Sequel II system
Background A high-quality reference genome is an essential tool for applied and basic research on arthropods. Long-read sequencing technologies may be used to generate more complete and contiguous genome assemblies than alternate technologies; however, long-read methods have historically had greater input DNA requirements and higher costs than next-generation sequencing, which are barriers to their use on many samples. Here, we present a 2.3 Gb de novo genome assembly of a field-collected adult female spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using a single Pacific Biosciences SMRT Cell. The spotted lanternfly is an invasive species recently discovered in the northeastern United States that threatens to damage economically important crop plants in the region. Results The DNA from 1 individual was used to make 1 standard, size-selected library with an average DNA fragment size of ~20 kb. The library was run on 1 Sequel II SMRT Cell 8M, generating a total of 132 Gb of long-read sequences, of which 82 Gb were from unique library molecules, representing ~36× coverage of the genome. The assembly had high contiguity (contig N50 length = 1.5 Mb), completeness, and sequence level accuracy as estimated by conserved gene set analysis (96.8% of conserved genes both complete and without frame shift errors). Furthermore, it was possible to segregate more than half of the diploid genome into the 2 separate haplotypes. The assembly also recovered 2 microbial symbiont genomes known to be associated with L. delicatula, each microbial genome being assembled into a single contig. Conclusions We demonstrate that field-collected arthropods can be used for the rapid generation of high-quality genome assemblies, an attractive approach for projects on emerging invasive species, disease vectors, or conservation efforts of endangered species.