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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional genomics of lipid metabolism in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

The basidiomycete yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (also known as Rhodotorula toruloides) accumulates high concentrations of lipids and carotenoids from diverse carbon sources. It has great potential as a model for the cellular biology of lipid droplets and for sustainable chemical production. We developed a method for high-throughput genetics (RB-TDNAseq), using sequence-barcoded Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA insertions. We identified 1,337 putative essential genes with low T-DNA insertion rates. We functionally profiled genes required for fatty acid catabolism and lipid accumulation, validating results with 35 targeted deletion strains. We identified a high-confidence set of 150 genes affecting lipid accumulation, including genes with predicted function…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A combinatorial approach to synthetic transcription factor-promoter combinations for yeast strain engineering.

Despite the need for inducible promoters in strain development efforts, the majority of engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to rely on a few constitutively active or inducible promoters. Building on advances that use the modular nature of both transcription factors and promoter regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein. Correspondingly, the synthetic transcription factor (TF) consists of the DNA binding domain…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Intraspecific comparative genomics of isolates of the Norway spruce pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum) and identification of its potential virulence factors.

Heterobasidion parviporum is an economically most important fungal forest pathogen in northern Europe, causing root and butt rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and virulence of this species remain elusive. No reference genome to facilitate functional analysis is available for this species.To better understand the virulence factor at both phenotypic and genomic level, we characterized 15 H. parviporum isolates originating from different locations across Finland for virulence, vegetative growth, sporulation and saprotrophic wood decay. Wood decay capability and latitude of fungal origins exerted interactive effects on their virulence and appeared important for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into the Acidobacteria reveal strategies for their success in terrestrial environments.

Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant and ubiquitous across soils. We performed a large-scale comparative genome analysis spanning subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 23 (n?=?24) with the goal to identify features to help explain their prevalence in soils and understand their ecophysiology. Our analysis revealed that bacteriophage integration events along with transposable and mobile elements influenced the structure and plasticity of these genomes. Low- and high-affinity respiratory oxygen reductases were detected in multiple genomes, suggesting the capacity for growing across different oxygen gradients. Among many genomes, the capacity to use a diverse collection of carbohydrates, as well…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Targeted long-read sequencing of a locus under long-term balancing selection in Capsella.

Rapid advances in short-read DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized population genomic studies, but there are genomic regions where this technology reaches its limits. Limitations mostly arise due to the difficulties in assembly or alignment to genomic regions of high sequence divergence and high repeat content, which are typical characteristics for loci under strong long-term balancing selection. Studying genetic diversity at such loci therefore remains challenging. Here, we investigate the feasibility and error rates associated with targeted long-read sequencing of a locus under balancing selection. For this purpose, we generated bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing the Brassicaceae S-locus, a region under…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Massive lateral transfer of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma from its plant-associated hosts.

Unlike most other fungi, molds of the genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are aggressive parasites of other fungi and efficient decomposers of plant biomass. Although nutritional shifts are common among hypocrealean fungi, there are no examples of such broad substrate versatility as that observed in Trichoderma. A phylogenomic analysis of 23 hypocrealean fungi (including nine Trichoderma spp. and the related Escovopsis weberi) revealed that the genus Trichoderma has evolved from an ancestor with limited cellulolytic capability that fed on either fungi or arthropods. The evolutionary analysis of Trichoderma genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes and auxiliary proteins (pcwdCAZome, 122 gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conserved genomic and amino acid traits of cold adaptation in subzero-growing Arctic permafrost bacteria.

Permafrost accounts for 27% of all soil ecosystems and harbors diverse microbial communities. Our understanding of microorganisms in permafrost, their activities and adaptations, remains limited. Using five subzero-growing (cryophilic) permafrost bacteria, we examined features of cold adaptation through comparative genomic analyses with mesophilic relatives. The cryophiles possess genes associated with cold adaptation, including cold shock proteins, RNA helicases, and oxidative stress and carotenoid synthesis enzymes. Higher abundances of genes associated with compatible solutes were observed, important for osmoregulation in permafrost brine veins. Most cryophiles in our study have higher transposase copy numbers than mesophiles. We investigated amino acid (AA) modifications…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-oleate yeast oil without polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements.We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil. We studied the effect of deletions and overexpressions in the fatty acid and triacylglyceride synthesis pathways to identify modifications that increase oleate levels. Oleic acid accumulation in triacylglycerides was promoted by exchanging the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic changes associated with the evolutionary transitions of Nostoc to a plant symbiont.

Cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc comprise free-living strains and also facultative plant symbionts. Symbiotic strains can enter into symbiosis with taxonomically diverse range of host plants. Little is known about genomic changes associated with evolutionary transition of Nostoc from free-living to plant symbiont. Here, we compared the genomes derived from 11 symbiotic Nostoc strains isolated from different host plants and infer phylogenetic relationships between strains. Phylogenetic reconstructions of 89 Nostocales showed that symbiotic Nostoc strains with a broad host range, entering epiphytic and intracellular or extracellular endophytic interactions, form a monophyletic clade indicating a common evolutionary history. A polyphyletic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function.

One-third of all protein-coding genes from bacterial genomes cannot be annotated with a function. Here, to investigate the functions of these genes, we present genome-wide mutant fitness data from 32 diverse bacteria across dozens of growth conditions. We identified mutant phenotypes for 11,779 protein-coding genes that had not been annotated with a specific function. Many genes could be associated with a specific condition because the gene affected fitness only in that condition, or with another gene in the same bacterium because they had similar mutant phenotypes. Of the poorly annotated genes, 2,316 had associations that have high confidence because they…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genus-wide assessment of lignocellulose utilization in the extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor by genomic, pan-genomic and metagenomic analysis

Metagenomic data from Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park, USA) and 13 genome sequences were used to reassess genus-wide biodiversity for the extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor The updated core genome contains 1,401 ortholog groups (average genome size for 13 species = 2,516 genes). The pangenome, which remains open with a revised total of 3,493 ortholog groups, encodes a variety of multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). These include three cellulases with GH48 domains that are colocated in the glucan degradation locus (GDL) and are specific determinants for microcrystalline cellulose utilization. Three recently sequenced species, Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain Rt8.B8 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor morganii), Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila reveal evolutionary insights into sulfamethoxazole resistance.

Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila is an aerobic, glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacterium that been isolated from various environmental sources, particularly aquatic ecosystems. Although resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has been reported in S. acidaminiphila, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, for the first time, we report the complete genome and antimicrobial resistome analysis of a clinical isolate S. acidaminiphila SUNEO which is resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Comparative analysis among closely related strains identified common and strain-specific genes. In particular, comparison with a sulfamethoxazole-sensitive strain identified a mutation within the sulfonamide-binding site of folP in SUNEO, which may reduce the binding affinity of sulfamethoxazole. Selection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-based evolutionary history of Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas is a large and diverse genus of Gammaproteobacteria. To provide a framework for discovery of evolutionary and taxonomic relationships of these bacteria, we compared the genomes of type strains of 163 species and 3 additional subspecies of Pseudomonas, including 118 genomes sequenced herein. A maximum likelihood phylogeny of the 166 type strains based on protein sequences of 100 single-copy orthologous genes revealed thirteen groups of Pseudomonas, composed of two to sixty three species each. Pairwise average nucleotide identities and alignment fractions were calculated for the data set of the 166 type strains and 1224 genomes of Pseudomonas available in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Amplification and adaptation of centromeric repeats in polyploid switchgrass species.

Centromeres in most higher eukaryotes are composed of long arrays of satellite repeats from a single satellite repeat family. Why centromeres are dominated by a single satellite repeat and how the satellite repeats originate and evolve are among the most intriguing and long-standing questions in centromere biology. We identified eight satellite repeats in the centromeres of tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Seven repeats showed characteristics associated with classical centromeric repeats with monomeric lengths ranging from 166 to 187 bp. Interestingly, these repeats share an 80-bp DNA motif. We demonstrate that this 80-bp motif may dictate translational and rotational phasing of the centromeric…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Saliniramus fredricksonii gen. nov., sp. nov., a heterotrophic halophile isolated from Hot Lake, Washington, a member of a novel lineage (Salinarimonadaceae fam. nov.) within the order Rhizobiales, and reclassification of the genus Salinarimonas Liu et al. 2010 into Salinarimonadaceae.

There was an error in the proposed genus name in the published article, in that the genus ‘Salinivirga’ was effectively published while this article was in review. Therefore, the genus ‘Salinivirga’ should be replaced with ‘Saliniramus’. For the convenience of future readers, we have included the complete corrected article below, in which all occurrences of the incorrect genus name have been amended: A halophilic bacterial strain, HL-109T, was isolated from the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O, which was obtained from the photosynthetic mat of Hot Lake (Washington, USA). A polyphasic approach using phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data was used to classify the…

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