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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Deciphering mixotrophic Clostridium formicoaceticum metabolism and energy conservation: Genomic analysis and experimental studies.

Clostridium formicoaceticum, a Gram-negative mixotrophic homoacetogen, produces acetic acid as the sole metabolic product from various carbon sources, including fructose, glycerol, formate, and CO2. Its genome of 4.59-Mbp contains a highly conserved Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster with the same layout as that in other mixotrophic acetogens, including Clostridium aceticum, Clostridium carboxidivorans, and Clostridium ljungdahlii. For energy conservation, C. formicoaceticum does not have all the genes required for the synthesis of cytochrome or quinone used for generating proton gradient in H+-dependent acetogens such as Moorella thermoacetica; instead, it has the Rnf system and a Na+-translocating ATPase similar to the one in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The gold-standard genome of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3 enables a detailed view of the diversity of sugar catabolism in fungi.

The fungal kingdom is too large to be discovered exclusively by classical genetics. The access to omics data opens a new opportunity to study the diversity within the fungal kingdom and how adaptation to new environments shapes fungal metabolism. Genomes are the foundation of modern science but their quality is crucial when analysing omics data. In this study, we demonstrate how one gold-standard genome can improve functional prediction across closely related species to be able to identify key enzymes, reactions and pathways with the focus on primary carbon metabolism. Based on this approach we identified alternative genes encoding various steps…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methanogenic and bacterial endosymbionts of free-living anaerobic ciliates

Trimyema compressum thrives in anoxic freshwater environments in which it preys on bacteria and grows with fermentative metabolisms. Like many anaerobic protozoa, instead of mitochondria, T. compressum possess hydrogenosomes, which are hydrogen-producing, energy-generating organelles characteristic of anaerobic protozoa and fungi. The cytoplasm of T. compressum harbours hydrogenotrophic methanogens that consume the hydrogen produced by hydrogenosome, which confers an energetic advantage to the host ciliate. Symbiotic associations between methanogenic archaea and Trimyema ciliates are thought to be established independently and/or repeatedly in their evolutional history. In addition to methanogenic symbionts, T. compressum houses bacterial symbiont TC1 whose function is unknown in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Sulfitobacter sp. strain D7, a virulent bacterium isolated from an Emiliania huxleyi algal bloom in the North Atlantic.

A Rhodobacterales bacterium, Sulfitobacter sp. strain D7, was isolated from an Emiliania huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic and has been shown to act as a pathogen and induce cell death of E. huxleyi during lab coculturing. We report here its complete genome sequence comprising one chromosome and five low-copy-number plasmids.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics and biochemistry investigation on the metabolic pathway of milled wood and alkali lignin-derived aromatic metabolites of Comamonas serinivorans SP-35.

The efficient depolymerization and utilization of lignin are one of the most important goals for the renewable use of lignocelluloses. The degradation and complete mineralization of lignin by bacteria represent a key step for carbon recycling in land ecosystems as well. However, many aspects of this process remain unclear, for example, the complex network of metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of lignin and the catabolic pathway of intermediate aromatic metabolites. To address these subjects, we characterized the deconstruction and mineralization of lignin with milled wood lignin (MWL, the most representative molecule of lignin in its native state) and alkali…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus koreensis 26-25, a ginsenoside converting bacterium, isolated from Korean kimchi

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, ivory colored, and motile, Lactobacillus koreensis 26-25 was isolated from Korean kimchi. Strain 26-25 showed the ability of conversion from major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides for which whole genome was sequenced. The whole genome sequence of Lactobacillus koreensis 26-25 consisted of one circular chromosome comprised of 3,006,812 bp, with a DNA G + C content of 49.23%. The whole genome analysis of strain 26-25 showed many glycosides hydrolase genes, which may contribute to identify the genes responsible for transformation of major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides for its high pharmacological effects.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in different tissues, developmental stages and stress conditions of Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum is a widely known medicinal herb used mostly as a remedy for depression because of its abundant secondary metabolites. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an optimized method for the efficient and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. In general, reference genes are used in qRT-PCR analysis because of their known or suspected housekeeping roles. However, their expression level cannot be assumed to remain stable under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, the identification of high quality reference genes is very necessary for the interpretation of qRT-PCR data. In this study, we investigated the expression of fourteen candidate genes, including…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome sequence of a marine sponge-associated bacteria, Bacillus safensis KCTC 12796BP, which produces the anti-allergic compounds

The full genome sequence of Bacillus safensis KCTC 12796BP which had been isolated from the marine sponge in the seawater of Jeju Island, was determined by Pac-Bio next- generation sequencing system. A circular chromosome in the length of 3,935,874 bp was obtained in addition to a circular form of plasmid having 36,690 bp. The G + C content of chromosome was 41.4%, and that of plasmid was 37.3%. The number of deduced CDSs in the chromosome was 3,980, whereas 36 CDS regions were determined in a plasmid. Among the deduced CDSs in chromosome, 81 tRNA genes and 24 rRNA genes…

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