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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Myxobacteria: Unraveling the potential of a unique microbiome niche

Natural products obtained from microorganisms have been playing an imperative role in drug discovery for decades. Hence, rightfully, microorganisms are considered as the richest source of biochemical remedies. In this review, we represent an unexplored family of bacteria considered to be prolific producers of diverse metabolites. Myxobacteria are gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to produce large families of secondary metabolites with prominent antimicrobial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. Klaus Gerth, Norbert Bedorf, Herbert Irschik, and Hans Reichenbach observed the antifungal activity of Sorangium cellulosum against Mucor hiemalis. In 2006, Hans Reichenbach and his team obtained a novel macrolide cruentaren A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The molecular basis for the intramolecular migration (NIH shift) of the carboxyl group during para-hydroxybenzoate catabolism.

The NIH shift is a chemical rearrangement in which a substituent on an aromatic ring undergoes an intramolecular migration, primarily during an enzymatic hydroxylation reaction. The molecular mechanism for the NIH shift of a carboxyl group has remained a mystery for 40 years. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reaction in the conversion of para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) to gentisate (GA, 2, 5-dihydroxybenzoate). Three genes (phgABC) from the PHB utilizer Brevibacillus laterosporus PHB-7a encode enzymes (p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase, p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA hydroxylase and gentisyl-CoA thioesterase, respectively) catalyzing the conversion of PHB to GA via a route involving CoA thioester formation, hydroxylation concomitant with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of lanthionine-producing Lactobacillus brevis strain 100D8, generated by PacBio sequencing.

Lactobacillus brevis strain 100D8 was isolated from rye silage and showed rapid acidification ability in vitro and antifungal activity against mycotoxin- producing fungi. We report here the complete genome sequence of L. brevis strain 100D8, which has a circular chromosome (2,351,988 bp, 2,304 coding sequences [CDSs]) and three plasmids (45,061 bp, 57 CDSs; 40,740 bp, 40 CDSs; and 39,943 bp, 57 CDSs).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Single-phase PacBio de novo assembly of the genome of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogen of Amphibia.

Here, we present an updated genome assembly of the diploid chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strain RTP6. This strain is part of the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) and was isolated in Dunedin, New Zealand. The assembly was generated using PacBio long-read and Illumina short-read data, allowing for the accurate phasing of heterozygosities.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The gold-standard genome of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3 enables a detailed view of the diversity of sugar catabolism in fungi.

The fungal kingdom is too large to be discovered exclusively by classical genetics. The access to omics data opens a new opportunity to study the diversity within the fungal kingdom and how adaptation to new environments shapes fungal metabolism. Genomes are the foundation of modern science but their quality is crucial when analysing omics data. In this study, we demonstrate how one gold-standard genome can improve functional prediction across closely related species to be able to identify key enzymes, reactions and pathways with the focus on primary carbon metabolism. Based on this approach we identified alternative genes encoding various steps…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methanogenic and bacterial endosymbionts of free-living anaerobic ciliates

Trimyema compressum thrives in anoxic freshwater environments in which it preys on bacteria and grows with fermentative metabolisms. Like many anaerobic protozoa, instead of mitochondria, T. compressum possess hydrogenosomes, which are hydrogen-producing, energy-generating organelles characteristic of anaerobic protozoa and fungi. The cytoplasm of T. compressum harbours hydrogenotrophic methanogens that consume the hydrogen produced by hydrogenosome, which confers an energetic advantage to the host ciliate. Symbiotic associations between methanogenic archaea and Trimyema ciliates are thought to be established independently and/or repeatedly in their evolutional history. In addition to methanogenic symbionts, T. compressum houses bacterial symbiont TC1 whose function is unknown in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics and biochemistry investigation on the metabolic pathway of milled wood and alkali lignin-derived aromatic metabolites of Comamonas serinivorans SP-35.

The efficient depolymerization and utilization of lignin are one of the most important goals for the renewable use of lignocelluloses. The degradation and complete mineralization of lignin by bacteria represent a key step for carbon recycling in land ecosystems as well. However, many aspects of this process remain unclear, for example, the complex network of metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of lignin and the catabolic pathway of intermediate aromatic metabolites. To address these subjects, we characterized the deconstruction and mineralization of lignin with milled wood lignin (MWL, the most representative molecule of lignin in its native state) and alkali…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Bridging gaps in transposable element research with single-molecule and single-cell technologies

More than half of the genomic landscape in humans and many other organisms is composed of repetitive DNA, which mostly derives from transposable elements (TEs) and viruses. Recent technological advances permit improved assessment of the repetitive content across genomes and newly developed molecular assays have revealed important roles of TEs and viruses in host genome evolution and organization. To update on our current understanding of TE biology and to promote new interdisciplinary strategies for the TE research community, leading experts gathered for the 2nd Uppsala Transposon Symposium on October 4–5, 2018 in Uppsala, Sweden. Using cutting-edge single-molecule and single-cell approaches,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hardwood tree genomics: Unlocking woody plant biology.

Woody perennial angiosperms (i.e., hardwood trees) are polyphyletic in origin and occur in most angiosperm orders. Despite their independent origins, hardwoods have shared physiological, anatomical, and life history traits distinct from their herbaceous relatives. New high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have provided access to numerous woody plant genomes beyond the early reference genomes of Populus and Eucalyptus, references that now include willow and oak, with pecan and chestnut soon to follow. Genomic studies within these diverse and undomesticated species have successfully linked genes to ecological, physiological, and developmental traits directly. Moreover, comparative genomic approaches are providing insights into speciation events while…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in different tissues, developmental stages and stress conditions of Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum is a widely known medicinal herb used mostly as a remedy for depression because of its abundant secondary metabolites. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an optimized method for the efficient and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. In general, reference genes are used in qRT-PCR analysis because of their known or suspected housekeeping roles. However, their expression level cannot be assumed to remain stable under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, the identification of high quality reference genes is very necessary for the interpretation of qRT-PCR data. In this study, we investigated the expression of fourteen candidate genes, including…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo genome assembly of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) developed through a combination of linked-reads and long-read technologies

Long-read sequencing has greatly contributed to the generation of high quality assemblies, albeit at a high cost. It is also not always clear how to combine sequencing platforms. We sequenced the genome of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), the most important pest in the olive fruits agribusiness industry, using Illumina short-reads, mate-pairs, 10x Genomics linked-reads, Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). The 10x linked-reads assembly gave the most contiguous assembly with an N50 of 2.16 Mb. Scaffolding the linked-reads assembly using long-reads from ONT gave a more contiguous assembly with scaffold N50 of 4.59 Mb. We also…

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