April 21, 2020  |  

Tracking short-term changes in the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 in clinical settings.

To track stepwise changes in genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance in rapidly evolving OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14, an emerging carbapenem-resistant high-risk clone, in clinical settings.Twenty-six K. pneumoniae ST14 isolates were collected by the Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance system over the course of 1 year. Isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and MIC determinations using 33 antibiotics from 14 classes.Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing identified 72 unique SNP sites spanning the chromosomes of the isolates, dividing them into three clusters (I, II and III). The initial isolate possessed two plasmids with 18 antibiotic-resistance genes, including blaOXA-232, and exhibited resistance to 11 antibiotic classes. Four other plasmids containing 12 different resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-15 and strA/B, were introduced over time, providing additional resistance to aztreonam and streptomycin. Moreover, chromosomal integration of insertion sequence Ecp1-blaCTX-M-15 mediated the inactivation of mgrB responsible for colistin resistance in four isolates from cluster III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST14 resistant to both carbapenem and colistin in South Korea. Furthermore, although some acquired genes were lost over time, the retention of 12 resistance genes and inactivation of mgrB provided resistance to 13 classes of antibiotics.We describe stepwise changes in OXA-232-producing K. pneumoniae ST14 in vivo over time in terms of antimicrobial resistance. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emerging high-risk K. pneumoniae clones and provide reference data for future outbreaks.Copyright © 2019 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Raoultella terrigena Strains, NCTC 13097 and NCTC 13098, Isolated from Human Cases.

Raoultella terrigena is a bacterial species associated with soil and aquatic environments; however, sporadic cases of opportunistic disease in humans have been reported. Here, we report the first two complete genome sequences from clinical strains isolated from human sources that have been deposited in the National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC). © Crown copyright 2019.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of an IMP-8, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-3 and QnrS1 co-producing Enterobacter asburiae isolate from a patient with wound infection.

The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and complete genome sequence of an IMP-8, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-3 and QnrS1 co-producing multidrug-resistant Enterobacter asburiae isolate (EN3600) from a patient with wound infection.Species identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Carbapenemase genes were identified by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The complete genome sequence of E. asburiae EN3600 was obtained using a PacBio RS II platform. Genome annotation was done by Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server. Acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and plasmid replicons were detected using ResFinder 2.1 and PlasmidFinder 1.3, respectively.The genome of E. asburiae EN3600 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and five plasmids. The annotated genome contains various ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, fluoroquinolones, fosfomycin, macrolides, phenicols, rifampicin and sulfonamides. In addition, plasmids of incompatibility (Inc) groups IncHI2A, IncFIB(pECLA), IncFIB(pQil) and IncP1 were identified. The genes blaIMP-8, blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-3 were located on different plasmids. The blaIMP-8 gene was carried by an 86-kb IncFIB(pQil) plasmid. The blaCTX-M-3 and qnrS1 genes were co-harboured by an IncP1 plasmid. In addition, blaCTX-M-14 was associated with blaTEM-1B, blaOXA-1, catB3 and sul1 genes in a 116-kb non-typeable plasmid.To our knowledge, this is the first complete genome sequence of an E. asburiae isolate co-producing IMP-8, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-3 and QnrS1. This genome may facilitate the understanding of the resistome, pathogenesis and genomic features of Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) and will provide valuable information for accurate identification of ECC.Copyright © 2019 International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Retrospective whole-genome sequencing analysis distinguished PFGE and drug-resistance-matched retail meat and clinical Salmonella isolates.

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of outbreak and sporadic-associated foodborne illnesses in the United States. These infections have been associated with a range of foods, including retail meats. Traditionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) have been used to facilitate public health investigations of Salmonella infections. However, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as an alternative tool that can be routinely implemented. To assess its potential in enhancing integrated surveillance in Pennsylvania, USA, WGS was used to directly compare the genetic characteristics of 7 retail meat and 43 clinical historic Salmonella isolates, subdivided into 3 subsets based on PFGE and AST results, to retrospectively resolve their genetic relatedness and identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses revealed that the retail meat isolates within S. Heidelberg, S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 1 and S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 2 were separated from each primary PFGE pattern-matched clinical isolate by 6-12, 41-96 and 21-81 SNPs, respectively. Fifteen resistance genes were identified across all isolates, including fosA7, a gene only recently found in a limited number of Salmonella and a =95?%?phenotype to genotype correlation was observed for all tested antimicrobials. Moreover, AMR was primarily plasmid-mediated in S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 2, whereas AMR was chromosomally carried in S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 1. Similar plasmids were identified in both the retail meat and clinical isolates. Collectively, these data highlight the utility of WGS in retrospective analyses and enhancing integrated surveillance for Salmonella from multiple sources.


April 21, 2020  |  

Antimicrobial resistance-encoding plasmid clusters with heterogeneous MDR regions driven by IS26 in a single Escherichia coli isolate.

IS26-flanked transposons played an increasingly important part in the mobilization and development of resistance determinants. Heterogeneous resistance-encoding plasmid clusters with polymorphic MDR regions (MRRs) conferred by IS26 in an individual Escherichia coli isolate have not yet been detected.To characterize the complete sequence of a novel blaCTX-M-65- and fosA3-carrying IncZ-7 plasmid with dynamic MRRs from an E. coli isolate, and to depict the mechanism underlying the spread of resistance determinants and genetic polymorphisms.The molecular characterization of a strain carrying blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 was analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MLST. The transferability of a plasmid bearing blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 was determined by conjugation assays, and the complete structure of the plasmid was obtained by Illumina, PacBio and conventional PCR mapping, respectively. The circular forms derived from IS26-flanked transposons were detected by reverse PCR and sequencing.A novel IncZ-7 plasmid pEC013 (~118kb) harbouring the blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 genes was recovered from E. coli isolate EC013 belonging to D-ST117. The plasmid was found to have heterogeneous and dynamic MRRs in an individual strain and the IS26-flanked composite transposon-derived circular intermediates were identified and characterized in pEC013.The heterogeneous MRRs suggested that a single plasmid may actually be a cluster of plasmids with the same backbone but varied MRRs, reflecting the plasmid’s heterogeneity and the survival benefits of having a response to antimicrobial-related threatening conditions in an individual strain. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


April 21, 2020  |  

A Phage-Like Plasmid Carrying blaKPC-2 Gene in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Background: Lateral gene transfer plays a central role in the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite their clinical significance, there is little information regarding the mobile genetic elements and mechanism of acquisition and propagation of lateral genes in P. aeruginosa, and they remain largely unknown. Objectives: The present study characterized the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strain BH9. Methods:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 sequencing was performed using the long-read PacBio SMRT platform and the Ion Proton System. De novo assembly was carried out using the SMRT pipeline and Canu, and gene prediction and annotation were performed using Prokka and RAST. Results:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 exhibited a 7.1 Mb circular chromosome. However, the blaKPC-2 gene is located in an additional contig composed by a small plasmid pBH6 from P. aeruginosa strain BH6 and several phage-related genes. Further analysis revealed that the beginning and end of the contig contain identical sequences, supporting a circular plasmid structure. This structure spans 41,087 bp, exhibiting all the Mu-like phage landmarks. In addition, 5-bp direct repeats (GGATG) flanking the pBH6 ends were found, strongly indicating integration of the Mu-like phage into the pBH6 plasmid. Mu phages are commonly found in P. aeruginosa. However, for the first time showing a potential impact in shaping the vehicles of the dissemination of antimicrobial (e.g., plasmid pBH6) resistance genes in the Pseudomonas genus. Conclusion: pBH6 captured the Mu-like Phage BH9, creating a co-integrate pBH6::Phage BH9, and this phage-plasmid complex may represent novel case of a phage-like plasmid.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of an NDM-5 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST156 isolate from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains has posed a severe threat to public health in recent years. The mobile elements carrying the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactqtamase (NDM) gene have been regarded as the major mechanism leading to the rapid increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinics and animals.We describe an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli strain, ECCRA-119 (sequence type 156 [ST156]), isolated from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China. ECCRA-119 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate that exhibited resistance to 27 antimicrobial compounds, including imipenem and meropenem, as detected by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The complete genome sequence of the ECCRA-119 isolate was also obtained using the PacBio RS II platform. Eleven acquired resistance genes were identified in the chromosome; four were detected in plasmid pTB201, while six were detected in plasmid pTB202. Importantly, the carbapenem-resistant gene blaNDM-5 was detected in the IncX3 plasmid pTB203. In addition, seven virulence genes and one metal-resistance gene were also detected. The results of conjugation experiments and the transfer regions identification indicated that the blaNDM-5-harboring plasmid pTB203 could be transferred between E. coli strains.The results reflected the severe bacterial resistance in a poultry farm in Zhejiang province and increased our understanding of the presence and transmission of the blaNDM-5 gene.


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