In today’s clinical diagnostic laboratories, the detection of the disease causing mutations is either done through genotyping or Sanger sequencing. Whether done singly or in a multiplex assay, genotyping works only if the exact molecular change is known. Sanger sequencing is the gold standard method that captures both known and novel molecular changes in the disease gene of interest. Most clinical Sanger sequencing assays involve PCR-amplifying the coding sequences of the disease target gene followed by bi-directional sequencing of the amplified products. Therefore for every patient sample, one generates multiple amplicons singly and each amplicon leads to two separate sequencing reactions. Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing offers several advantages to Sanger sequencing including long read lengths, first-in-first-out processing, fast time to result, high-levels of multiplexing and substantially reduced costs. For our first proof-of-concept experiment, we queried 3 known disease-associated mutations in de-identified clinical samples. We started off with 3 autosomal recessive diseases found at an increased frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: Tay Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease and Canavan disease. The mutated gene in Tays Sachs is HEXA, Niemann-Pick is SMPD1 and Canavan is ASPA. Coding exons were amplified in multiple (6-13) amplicons for each gene from both non-carrier and carriers. Amplicons were purified, concentrations normalized, and combined prior to SMRTbell™ Library prep. A single SMRTbell library was sequenced for each gene from each patient using standard Pacific Biosciences C2 chemistry and protocols. Average read lengths of 4,000 bp across samples allowed for high-quality Circular Consensus Sequences (CCS) across all amplicons (all less than 1 kb). This high quality CCS data permitted the clean partitioning of reads from a patient in the presence of heterozygous events. Using non-carrier sequencing as a control, we were able to correctly identify the known events in carrier genes. This suggests the potential utility of SMRT sequencing in a clinical setting, enabling a cost-effective method of replacing targeted mutation detection with sequencing of the entire gene.
PacBio 2013 User Group Meeting Presentation Slides: Lisbeth Guethlein from Stanford University School of Medicine looked at highly repetitive and variable immune regions of the orangutan genome. Guethlein reported that “PacBio managed to accomplish in a week what I have been working on for a couple years” (with Sanger sequencing), and the results were concordant. “Long story short, I was a happy customer.”
Allele-level sequencing and phasing of full-length HLA class I and II genes using SMRT Sequencing technology
The three classes of genes that comprise the MHC gene family are actively involved in determining donor-recipient compatibility for organ transplant, as well as susceptibility to autoimmune diseases via cross-reacting immunization. Specifically, Class I genes HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II genes HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP are considered medically important for genetic analysis to determine histocompatibility. They are highly polymorphic and have thousands of alleles implicated in disease resistance and susceptibility. The importance of full-length HLA gene sequencing for genotyping, detection of null alleles, and phasing is now widely acknowledged. While DNA-sequencing-based HLA genotyping has become routine, only 7% of the HLA genes have been characterized by allele-level sequencing, while 93% are still defined by partial sequences. The gold-standard Sanger sequencing technology is being quickly replaced by second-generation, high- throughput sequencing methods due to its inability to generate unambiguous phased reads from heterozygous alleles. However, although these short, high-throughput, clonal sequencing methods are better at heterozygous allele detection, they are inadequate at generating full-length haploid gene sequences. Thus, full-length gene sequencing from an enhancer-promoter region to a 3’UTR that includes phasing information without the need for imputation still remains a technological challenge. The best way to overcome these challenges is to sequence these genes with a technology that is clonal in nature and has the longest possible read lengths. We have employed Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences for sequencing full-length HLA class I and II genes.
Integrative biology of a fungus: Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing to interrogate the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome of Neurospora crassa.
PacBio SMRT Sequencing has the unique ability to directly detect base modifications in addition to the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Because eukaryotes use base modifications to regulate gene expression, the absence or presence of epigenetic events relative to the location of genes is critical to elucidate the function of the modification. Therefore an integrated approach that combines multiple omic-scale assays is necessary to study complex organisms. Here, we present an integrated analysis of three sequencing experiments: 1) DNA sequencing, 2) base-modification detection, and 3) Iso-seq analysis, in Neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus that has been used to make many landmark discoveries in biochemistry and genetics. We show that de novo assembly of a new strain yields complete assemblies of entire chromosomes, and additionally contains entire centromeric sequences. Base-modification analyses reveal candidate sites of increased interpulse duration (IPD) ratio, that may signify regions of 5mC, 5hmC, or 6mA base modifications. Iso-seq method provides full-length transcript evidence for comprehensive gene annotation, as well as context to the base-modifications in the newly assembled genome. Projects that integrate multiple genome-wide assays could become common practice for identifying genomic elements and understanding their function in new strains and organisms.
HLA sequencing using SMRT Technology – High resolution and high throughput HLA genotyping in a clinical setting
Sequence based typing (SBT) is considered the gold standard method for HLA typing. Current SBT methods are rather laborious and are prone to phase ambiguity problems and genotyping uncertainties. As a result, the NGS community is rapidly seeking to remedy these challenges, to produce high resolution and high throughput HLA sequencing conducive to a clinical setting. Today, second generation NGS technologies are limited in their ability to yield full length HLA sequences required for adequate phasing and identification of novel alleles. Here we present the use of single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing as a means of determining full length/long HLA sequences. Moreover we reveal the scalability of this method through multiplexing approches and determine HLA genotyping calls through the use of third party Gendx NGSengine® software.
Long Amplicon Analysis: Highly accurate, full-length, phased, allele-resolved gene sequences from multiplexed SMRT Sequencing data.
The correct phasing of genetic variations is a key challenge for many applications of DNA sequencing. Allele-level resolution is strongly preferred for histocompatibility sequencing where recombined genes can exhibit different compatibilities than their parents. In other contexts, gene complementation can provide protection if deleterious mutations are found on only one allele of a gene. These problems are especially pronounced in immunological domains given the high levels of genetic diversity and recombination seen in regions like the Major Histocompatibility Complex. A new tool for analyzing Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing data – Long Amplicon Analysis (LAA) – can generate highly accurate, phased and full-length consensus sequences for multiple genes in a single sequencing run.
Capturing the chicken transcriptome with PacBio long read RNA-seq data OR “Chicken in awesome sauce: a recipe for new transcript identification.”
PacBio 2014 User Group Meeting Presentation Slides: Alisha Holloway of the Gladstone Institutes presented on the use of isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) to improve the annotation of the chicken genome as a model reference for cardiovascular research.
Fully phased allele-level sequencing of highly polymorphic HLA genes is greatly facilitated by SMRT Sequencing technology. In the present work, we have evaluated multiple DNA barcoding strategies for multiplexing several loci from multiple individuals, using three different tagging methods. Specifically MHC class I genes HLA-A, -B, and –C were indexed via DNA Barcodes by either tailed primers or barcoded SMRTbell adapters. Eight different 16-bp barcode sequences were used in symmetric & asymmetric pairing. Eight DNA barcoded adapters in symmetric pairing were independently ligated to a pool of HLA-A, -B and –C for eight different individuals, one at a time and pooled for sequencing on a single SMRT Cell. Amplicons generated from barcoded primers were pooled upfront for library generation. Eight symmetric barcoded primers were generated for HLA class I genes. These primers facilitated multiplexing of 8 samples and also allowed generation of unique asymmetric pairings for simultaneous amplification from 28 reference genomic DNA samples. The data generated from all 3 methods was analyzed using LAA protocol in SMRT analysis V2.3. Consensus sequences generated were typed using GenDx NGS engine HLA-typing software.
Second-generation sequencing has brought about tremendous insights into the genetic underpinnings of biology. However, there are many functionally important and medically relevant regions of genomes that are currently difficult or impossible to sequence, resulting in incomplete and fragmented views of genomes. Two main causes are (i) limitations to read DNA of extreme sequence content (GC-rich or AT-rich regions, low complexity sequence contexts) and (ii) insufficient read lengths which leave various forms of structural variation unresolved and result in mapping ambiguities.
Rapid full-length Iso-Seq cDNA sequencing of rice mRNA to facilitate annotation and identify splice-site variation.
PacBio’s new Iso-Seq technology allows for rapid generation of full-length cDNA sequences without the need for assembly steps. The technology was tested on leaf mRNA from two model O. sativa ssp. indica cultivars – Minghui 63 and Zhenshan 97. Even though each transcriptome was not exhaustively sequenced, several thousand isoforms described genes over a wide size range, most of which are not present in any currently available FL cDNA collection. In addition, the lack of an assembly requirement provides direct and immediate access to complete mRNA sequences and rapid unraveling of biological novelties.
Arabica coffee, revered for its taste and aroma, has a complex genome. It is an allotetraploid (2n=4x=44) with a genome size of approximately 1.3 Gb, derived from the recent (< 0.6 Mya) hybridization of two diploid progenitors (2n=2x=22), C. canephora (710 Mb) and C. eugenioides (670 Mb). Both parental species diverged recently (< 4.2Mya) and their genomes are highly homologous. To facilitate assembly, a dihaploid plant was chosen for sequencing. Initial genome assembly attempts with short read data produced an assembly covering 1,031 Mb of the C. arabica genome with a contig L50 of 9kb. By implementation of long read PacBio at greater than 50x coverage and cutting-edge PacBio software, a de novo PacBio-only genome assembly was constructed that covers 1,042 Mb of the genome with an L50 of 267 kb. The two assemblies were assessed and compared to determine gene content, chimeric regions, and the ability to separate the parental genomes. A genetic map that contains 600 SSRs is being used for anchoring the contigs and improve the sub-genome differentiation together with the search of sub-genome specific SNPs. PacBio transcriptome sequencing is currently being added to finalize gene annotation of the polished assembly. The finished genome assembly will be used to guide re-sequencing assemblies of parental genomes (C. canephora and C. eugenioides) as well as a template for GBS analysis and whole genome re-sequencing of a set of C. arabica accessions representative of the species diversity. The obtained data will provide powerful genomic tools to enable more efficient coffee breeding strategies for this crop, which is highly susceptible to climate change and is the main source of income for millions of small farmers in producing countries.
As a cost-effective alternative to whole genome human sequencing, targeted sequencing of specific regions, such as exomes or panels of relevant genes, has become increasingly common. These methods typically include direct PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of interest, or the capture of these targets via probe-based hybridization. Commonly, these approaches are designed to amplify or capture exonic regions and thereby result in amplicons or fragments that are a few hundred base pairs in length, a length that is well-addressed with short-read sequencing technologies. These approaches typically provide very good coverage and can identify SNPs in the targeted region, but are unable to haplotype these variants. Here we describe a targeted sequencing workflow that combines Roche NimbleGen’s SeqCap EZ enrichment technology with Pacific Biosciences’ SMRT Sequencing to provide a more comprehensive view of variants and haplotype information over multi-kilobase regions. While the SeqCap EZ technology is typically used to capture 200 bp fragments, we demonstrate that 6 kb fragments can also be utilized to enrich for long fragments that extend beyond the targeted capture site and well into (and often across) the flanking intronic regions. When combined with the long reads of SMRT Sequencing, multi-kilobase regions of the human genome can be phased and variants detected in exons, introns and intergenic regions.
Multiplexing human HLA class I & II genotyping with DNA barcode adapters for high throughput research.
Human MHC class I genes HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II genes HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ, play a critical role in the immune system as major factors responsible for organ transplant rejection. The have a direct or linkage-based association with several diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases, and are important targets for clinical and drug sensitivity research. HLA genes are also highly polymorphic and their diversity originates from exonic combinations as well as recombination events. A large number of new alleles are expected to be encountered if these genes are sequenced through the UTRs. Thus allele-level resolution is strongly preferred when sequencing HLA genes. Pacific Biosciences has developed a method to sequence the HLA genes in their entirety within the span of a single read taking advantage of long read lengths (average >10 kb) facilitated by SMRT technology. A highly accurate consensus sequence (=99.999 or QV50 demonstrated) is generated for each allele in a de novo fashion by our SMRT Analysis software. In the present work, we have combined this imputation-free, fully phased, allele-specific consensus sequence generation workflow and a newly developed DNA-barcode-tagged SMRTbell sample preparation approach to multiplex 96 individual samples for sequencing all of the HLA class I and II genes. Commercially available NGS-go reagents for full-length HLA class I and relevant exons of class II genes were amplified for hi-resolution HLA sequencing. The 96 samples included 72 that are part of UCLA reference panel and had pre-typing information available for 2 fields, based on gold standard SBT methods. SMRTbell adapters with 16 bp barcode tags were ligated to long amplicons in symmetric pairing. PacBio sequencing was highly effective in generating accurate, phased sequences of full-length alleles of HLA genes. In this work we demonstrate scalability of HLA sequencing using off the shelf assays for research applications to find biological significance in full-length sequencing.
Highly contiguous de novo human genome assembly and long-range haplotype phasing using SMRT Sequencing
The long reads, random error, and unbiased sampling of SMRT Sequencing enables high quality, de novo assembly of the human genome. PacBio long reads are capable of resolving genomic variations at all size scales, including SNPs, insertions, deletions, inversions, translocations, and repeat expansions, all of which are important in understanding the genetic basis for human disease and difficult to access via other technologies. In demonstration of this, we report a new high-quality, diploid aware de novo assembly of Craig Venter’s well-studied genome.
Full-length sequencing of HLA class I genes of more than 1000 samples provides deep insights into sequence variability
Aim: The vast majority of donor typing relies on sequencing exons 2 and 3 of HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, -C). With such an approach certain allele combinations do not result in the anticipated “high resolution” (G-code) typing, due to the lack of exon-phasing information. To resolve ambiguous typing results for a haplotype frequency project, we established a whole gene sequencing approach for HLA class I, facilitating also an estimation of the degree of sequence variability outside the commonly sequenced exons. Methods: Primers were developed flanking the UTR regions resulting in similar amplicon lengths of 4.2-4.4 kb. Using a 4-primer approach, secondary primers containing barcodes were combined with the gene specific primers to obtain barcoded full-gene amplicons in a single amplification step. Amplicons were pooled, purified, and ligated to SMRT bells (i.e. annealing points for sequencing primers) following standard protocols from Pacific Biosciences. Taking advantage of the SMRT chemistry, pools of 48-72 amplicons were sequenced full length and phased in single runs on a Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument. Demultiplexing was achieved using the SMRT portal. Sequence analysis was performed using NGSengine software (GenDx). Results: We successfully performed full-length gene sequencing of 1003 samples, harboring ambiguous typings of either HLA-A (n=46), HLA-B (n=304) or HLA-C (n=653). Despite the high per-read raw error rates typical for SMRT sequencing (~15%) the consensus sequence proved highly reliable. All consensus sequences for exons 2 and 3 were in full accordance with their MiSeq-derived sequences. Unambiguous allelic resolution was achieved for all samples. We observed novel intronic, exonic as well as UTR sequence variations for many of the alleles covered by our data set. This included sequences of 600 individuals with HLA-C*07:01/C*07:02 genotype revealing the extent of sequence variation outside the exons 2 and 3. Conclusion: Here we present a whole gene amplification and sequencing approach for HLA class I genes. The maturity of this approach was demonstrated by sequencing more than 1000 samples, achieving fully phased allelic sequences. Extensive sequencing of one common allele combination hints at the yet to discover diversity of the HLA system outside the commonly analyzed exons.