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Friday, February 26, 2021

MaSuRCA Mega-Reads Assembly Technique for haplotype resolved genome assembly of hybrid PacBio and Illumina Data

The developments in DNA sequencing technology over the past several years have enabled large number of scientists to obtain sequences for the genomes of their interest at a fairly low cost. Illumina Sequencing was the dominant whole genome sequencing technology over the past few years due to its low cost. The Illumina reads are short (up to 300bp) and thus most of those draft genomes produced from Illumina data are very fragmented which limits their usability in practical scenarios. Longer reads are needed for more contiguous genomes. Recently Pacbio sequencing made significant advances in developing cost-effective long-read (>10000bp) sequencing technology…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Diploid genome assembly and comprehensive haplotype sequence reconstruction

Outside of the simplest cases (haploid, bacteria, or inbreds), genomic information is not carried in a single reference per individual, but rather has higher ploidy (n=>2) for almost all organisms. The existence of two or more highly related sequences within an individual makes it extremely difficult to build high quality, highly contiguous genome assemblies from short DNA fragments. Based on the earlier work on a polyploidy aware assembler, FALCON ( https://github.com/PacificBiosciences/FALCON) , we developed new algorithms and software (“FALCON-unzip”) for de novo haplotype reconstructions from SMRT Sequencing data. We generate two datasets for developing the algorithms and the prototype software:…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Minimization of chimera formation and substitution errors in full-length 16S PCR amplification

The constituents and intra-communal interactions of microbial populations have garnered increasing interest in areas such as water remediation, agriculture and human health. One popular, efficient method of profiling communities is to amplify and sequence the evolutionarily conserved 16S rRNA sequence. Currently, most targeted amplification focuses on short, hypervariable regions of the 16S sequence. Distinguishing information not spanned by the targeted region is lost and species-level classification is often not possible. SMRT Sequencing easily spans the entire 1.5 kb 16S gene, and in combination with highly-accurate single-molecule sequences, can improve the identification of individual species in a metapopulation. However, when amplifying…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Minimization of chimera formation and substitution errors in full-length 16S PCR amplification

The constituents and intra-communal interactions of microbial populations have garnered increasing interest in areas such as water remediation, agriculture and human health. Amplification and sequencing of the evolutionarily conserved 16S rRNA gene is an efficient method of profiling communities. Currently, most targeted amplification focuses on short, hypervariable regions of the 16S sequence. Distinguishing information not spanned by the targeted region is lost, and species-level classification is often not possible. PacBio SMRT Sequencing easily spans the entire 1.5 kb 16S gene in a single read, producing highly accurate single-molecule sequences that can improve the identification of individual species in a metapopulation.However,…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Haplotyping of full-length transcript reads from long-read sequencing can reveal allelic imbalances in isoform expression

The Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq method, which can produce high-quality isoform sequences of 10 kb and longer, has been used to annotate many important plant and animal genomes. Here, we develop an algorithm called IsoPhase that postprocesses Iso-Seq data to retrieve allele specific isoform information. Using simulated data, we show that for both diploid and tetraploid genomes, IsoPhase results in good SNP recovery with low FDR at error rates consistent with CCS reads. We apply IsoPhase to a haplotyperesolved genome assembly and multiple fetal tissue Iso-Seq dataset from a F1 cross of Angus x Brahman cattle subspecies. IsoPhase-called haplotypes were validated…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Comparison of sequencing approaches applied to complex soil metagenomes to resolve proteins of interest

Background: Long-read sequencing presents several potential advantages for providing more complete gene profiling of metagenomic samples. Long reads can capture multiple genes in a single read, and longer reads typically result in assemblies with better contiguity, especially for higher abundance organisms. However, a major challenge with using long reads has been the higher cost per base, which may lead to insufficient coverage of low-abundance species. Additionally, lower single-pass accuracy can make gene discovery for low-abundance organisms difficult. Methods: To evaluate the pros and cons of long reads for metagenomics, we directly compared PacBio and Illumina sequencing on a soil-derived sample,…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Beyond Contiguity: Evaluating the accuracy of de novo genome assemblies

HiFi reads (>99% accurate, 15-20 kb) from the PacBio Sequel II System consistently provide complete and contiguous genome assemblies. In addition to completeness and contiguity, accuracy is of critical importance, as assembly errors complicate downstream analysis, particularly by disrupting gene frames. Metrics used to assess assembly accuracy include: 1) in-frame gene count, 2) kmer consistency, and 3) concordance to a benchmark, where discordances are interpreted as assembly errors. Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) provides a benchmark for the human genome with estimated accuracy of 99.9999% (Q60). Concordance for human HiFi assemblies exceeds Q50, which provides excellent genomes for downstream analysis,…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Comprehensive variant detection in a human genome with highly accurate long reads

Introduction: Long-read sequencing has been applied successfully to assemble genomes and detect structural variants. However, due to high raw-read error rates (10-15%), it has remained difficult to call small variants from long reads. Recent improvements in library preparation and sequencing chemistry have increased length, accuracy, and throughput of PacBio circular consensus sequencing (CCS) reads, resulting in 15-20kb reads with average read quality above 99%. Materials and Methods: We sequenced a library from human reference sample HG002 to 18-fold coverage on the PacBio Sequel II with two SMRT Cells 8M. The CCS algorithm was used to generate highly accurate (average 99.9%)…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Podcast: Major sequencing projects should be done with long reads

Dan Geraghty explains that while there have been decades’ worth of studies associating the genetics of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and the highly polymorphic HLA class 1 and 2 genes, we still haven’t found the key mutations for a variety of different autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and others. Enormous amounts of linkage disequilibrium in these regions are one factor, as is getting information in phase, so larger stretches of sequence are needed. Recently Geraghty has begun using SMRT Technology with hopes of drilling down to the causal genetics. 

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Friday, February 5, 2021

PAG PacBio Workshop: Comparative analyses of next generation technologies for generating chromosome-level reference genome assemblies

At PAG 2017, Rockefeller University’s Erich Jarvis offered an in-depth comparison of methods for generating highly contiguous genome assemblies, using hummingbird as the basis to evaluate a number of sequencing and scaffolding technologies. Analyses include gene content, error rate, chromosome metrics, and more. Plus: a long-read look at four genes associated with vocal learning.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: Using Iso-Seq analysis to build a better annotation

Long-read sequencing technologies like Iso-Seq analysis present researchers with a powerful tool for probing the transcriptomes of many species. The ability to sequence transcripts from end-to-end has revealed transcription complexity on a scale that was previously impossible. This sequence rich information has also improved our ability to predict transcript functions and biotypes. Researchers can now use Iso-Seq analysis to discover transcript models in almost any species with an accuracy on par with human and mouse annotations. In this webinar, Richard Kuo discusses the core concepts behind Iso-Seq analysis and how to use it to improve or build a new transcriptome…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: Sequence with Confidence – Introducing the Sequel II System

In this webinar, Jonas Korlach, Chief Scientific Officer, PacBio provides an overview of the features and the advantages of the new Sequel II System. Kiran Garimella, Senior Computational Scientist, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, describes his work sequencing humans with HiFi reads enabling discovery of structural variants undetectable in short reads. Luke Tallon, Scientific Director, Genomics Resource Center, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, covers the GRC’s work on bacterial multiplexing, 16S microbiome profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. Finally, Shane McCarthy, Senior Research Associate, University of Cambridge, focuses on the scaling and affordability of high-quality…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

User Group Meeting: Sequencing chemistry & application updates

To start Day 1 of the PacBio User Group Meeting, Jonas Korlach, PacBio CSO, provides an update on the latest releases and performance metrics for the Sequel II System. The longest reads generated on this system with the SMRT Cell 8M now go beyond 175,000 bases, while maintaining extremely high accuracy. HiFi mode, for example, uses circular consensus sequencing to achieve accuracy of Q40 or even Q50.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Latest product and application updates

In this ASHG 2020 PacBio Workshop Jonas Korlach, CSO, shares how the new PacBio Sequel IIe System makes highly accurate long-read sequencing easy and affordable so?all scientists can gain comprehensive views of human genomes and transcriptomes. He goes on to provide updates on the applications including human WGS for variant detection, de novo genome assembly, single-cell full-length RNA sequencing, and targeted sequencing using PCR and No-Amp methods.

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