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Sunday, October 25, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: SMRT Sequencing of whole mitochondrial genomes to study metabolic disease

Penelope Bonnen, an assistant professor at Baylor College of Medicine, discusses her use of PacBio SMRT sequencing to look at whole mitochondrial genomes as she reviews her AGBT 2012 poster. Dr. Bonnen is studying a Micronesian population with unusually high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to figure out how mitochondrial genetics contributes to adult-onset metabolic syndrome. She describes two approaches in a pilot project for full-length mitochondrial sequencing: one using a 500-base pair insert library and another directly sequencing the single 17 kb amplicon.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

Podcast: Major sequencing projects should be done with long reads

Dan Geraghty explains that while there have been decades’ worth of studies associating the genetics of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and the highly polymorphic HLA class 1 and 2 genes, we still haven’t found the key mutations for a variety of different autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and others. Enormous amounts of linkage disequilibrium in these regions are one factor, as is getting information in phase, so larger stretches of sequence are needed. Recently Geraghty has begun using SMRT Technology with hopes of drilling down to the causal genetics. 

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Insight into MHC and KIR genomic regions associated with autoimmune disease

Dan Geraghty from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center presents his AGBT poster on a new PacBio-based solution to sequence extended genomic regions — in this case, KIR and MHC, two of the most variable regions of the human genome. He reports data revealing for the first time regions that may be associated with autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, and also shows that sequences were phased, complete, and highly accurate.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

ASHG Virtual Poster: The MHC Diversity in Africa Project (MDAP) pilot – 125 African high resolution HLA types from 5 populations

In this ASHG 2016 poster video, Martin Pollard from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge describes an ambitious project to better represent natural variation in the complex MHC region by sequencing the locus in thousands of people from various populations in Africa. A pilot project in five populations has already revealed a lot of diversity in the region, which is important for human disease, vaccine response, and organ transplantation. Pollard says SMRT Sequencing is the only technology that can deliver the full-length haplotypes necessary to identify complete variation in this highly polymorphic complex. Plus: plans to…

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

AGBT PacBio Workshop: De novo sequencing of the naked mole rat genome

At AGBT 2017, Margaret Roy from Calico Life Sciences discussed a de novo genome sequencing effort for the naked mole rat. This animal has a remarkably long life span and resistance to cancer, both of which make it interesting for studies of life extension. The team is using SMRT Sequencing for a more complete, contiguous assembly than the two existing short-read-based assemblies. Included: data from the Sequel System.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Schizophrenia risk variants influence multiple classes of transcripts of sorting nexin 19 (SNX19).

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genomic loci associated with risk for schizophrenia, but unambiguous identification of the relationship between disease-associated variants and specific genes, and in particular their effect on risk conferring transcripts, has proven difficult. To better understand the specific molecular mechanism(s) at the schizophrenia locus in 11q25, we undertook cis expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) mapping for this 2 megabase genomic region using postmortem human brain samples. To comprehensively assess the effects of genetic risk upon local expression, we evaluated multiple transcript features: genes, exons, and exon-exon junctions in multiple brain regions-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Morphological and genomic characterisation of the hybrid schistosome infecting humans in Europe reveals a complex admixture between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis parasites

Schistosomes cause schistosomiasis, the worldtextquoterights second most important parasitic disease after malaria. A peculiar feature of schistosomes is their ability to produce viable and fertile hybrids. Originally only present in the tropics, schistosomiasis is now also endemic in Europe. Based on two genetic markers the European species had been identified as a hybrid between the ruminant-infective Schistosoma bovis and the human-infective Schistosoma haematobium.Here we describe for the first time the genomic composition of the European schistosome hybrid (77% of S. haematobium and 23% of S. bovis origins), its morphometric parameters and its compatibility with the European vector snail and intermediate…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals genes potentially involved in isoflavone biosynthesis in Pueraria thomsonii Benth.

Pueraria thomsonii Benth is an important medicinal plant. Transcriptome sequencing, unigene assembly, the annotation of transcripts and the study of gene expression profiles play vital roles in gene function research. However, the full-length transcriptome of P. thomsonii remains unknown. Here, we obtained 44,339 nonredundant transcripts of P. thomsonii by using the PacBio RS II Isoform and Illumina sequencing platforms, of which 43,195 were annotated genes. Compared with the expression levels in the plant roots, those of transcripts with a |fold change| = 4 and FDR < 0.01 in the leaves or stems were assigned as differentially expressed transcripts (DETs). In…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Consensus and variations in cell line specificity among human metapneumovirus strains.

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has been a notable etiological agent of acute respiratory infection in humans, but it was not discovered until 2001, because HMPV replicates only in a limited number of cell lines and the cytopathic effect (CPE) is often mild. To promote the study of HMPV, several groups have generated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing recombinant HMPV strains (HMPVGFP). However, the growing evidence has complicated the understanding of cell line specificity of HMPV, because it seems to vary notably among HMPV strains. In addition, unique A2b clade HMPV strains with a 180-nucleotide duplication in the G gene (HMPV A2b180nt-dup strains)…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Next generation sequencing characterizes HLA diversity in a registry population from the Netherlands.

Next generation DNA sequencing is used to determine the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, and -DQB1 assignments of 1009 unrelated volunteers for the unrelated donor registry in The Netherlands. The analysis characterizes all HLA exons and introns for class I alleles; at least exons 2 to 3 for HLA-DRB1; and exons 2 to 6 for HLA-DQB1. Of the distinct alleles present, there are 229 class I and 71 class II; 36 of these alleles are novel. The majority (approximately 98%) of the cumulative allele frequency at each locus is contributed by alleles that appear three or more times. Alleles encoding…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic variation and strain-specific functional adaptation in the human gut microbiome during early life.

The human gut microbiome matures towards the adult composition during the first years of life and is implicated in early immune development. Here, we investigate the effects of microbial genomic diversity on gut microbiome development using integrated early childhood data sets collected in the DIABIMMUNE study in Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. We show that gut microbial diversity is associated with household location and linear growth of children. Single nucleotide polymorphism- and metagenomic assembly-based strain tracking revealed large and highly dynamic microbial pangenomes, especially in the genus Bacteroides, in which we identified evidence of variability deriving from Bacteroides-targeting bacteriophages. Our…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Multidrug-Resistant Bovine Salmonellosis Predisposing for Severe Human Clostridial Myonecrosis.

BACKGROUND The overuse of antibiotics in animals promotes the development of multidrug-resistance predisposing for severe polymicrobial human infections. CASE REPORT We describe a case of spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis due to ulcerative colonic infection with multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serotype 4,[5],12: i: -. Serotyping of the colonic Salmonella isolate in the index case and the bovine farm outbreak isolates from where the patient worked indicated they were both serotype I 4,[5],12: i: -, which is linked with a multitude of large reported disease outbreaks. Further analysis revealed that they are highly genetically related and antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated that they…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Development and Genome Sequencing of a Laboratory-Inbred Miniature Pig Facilitates Study of Human Diabetic Disease.

Pig has been proved to be a valuable large animal model used for research on diabetic disease. However, their translational value is limited given their distinct anatomy and physiology. For the last 30 years, we have been developing a laboratory Asian miniature pig inbred line (Bama miniature pig [BM]) from the primitive Bama xiang pig via long-term selective inbreeding. Here, we assembled a BM reference genome at full chromosome-scale resolution with a total length of 2.49 Gb. Comparative and evolutionary genomic analyses identified numerous variations between the BM and commercial pig (Duroc), particularly those in the genetic loci associated with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Construction of full-length Japanese reference panel of class I HLA genes with single-molecule, real-time sequencing.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a gene complex known for its exceptional diversity across populations, importance in organ and blood stem cell transplantation, and associations of specific alleles with various diseases. We constructed a Japanese reference panel of class I HLA genes (ToMMo HLA panel), comprising a distinct set of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-H alleles, by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing of 208 individuals included in the 1070 whole-genome Japanese reference panel (1KJPN). For high-quality allele reconstruction, we developed a novel pipeline, Primer-Separation Assembly and Refinement Pipeline (PSARP), in which the SMRT sequencing and additional short-read data were used. The…

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