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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Exception to the rule: Genomic characterization of naturally occurring unusual Vibrio cholerae strains with a single chromosome.

The genetic make-up of most bacteria is encoded in a single chromosome while about 10% have more than one chromosome. Among these, Vibrio cholerae, with two chromosomes, has served as a model system to study various aspects of chromosome maintenance, mainly replication, and faithful partitioning of multipartite genomes. Here, we describe the genomic characterization of strains that are an exception to the two chromosome rules: naturally occurring single-chromosome V. cholerae. Whole genome sequence analyses of NSCV1 and NSCV2 (natural single-chromosome vibrio) revealed that the Chr1 and Chr2 fusion junctions contain prophages, IS elements, and direct repeats, in addition to large-scale…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome architecture and evolution of a unichromosomal asexual nematode.

Asexual reproduction in animals, though rare, is the main or exclusive mode of reproduction in some long-lived lineages. The longevity of asexual clades may be correlated with the maintenance of heterozygosity by mechanisms that rearrange genomes and reduce recombination. Asexual species thus provide an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between molecular changes, genome architecture, and cellular processes. Here we report the genome sequence of the parthenogenetic nematode Diploscapter pachys with only one chromosome pair. We show that this unichromosomal architecture is shared by a long-lived clade of asexual nematodes closely related to the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Avoidance of APOBEC3B-induced mutation by error-free lesion bypass.

APOBEC cytidine deaminases mutate cancer genomes by converting cytidines into uridines within ssDNA during replication. Although uracil DNA glycosylases limit APOBEC-induced mutation, it is unknown if subsequent base excision repair (BER) steps function on replication-associated ssDNA. Hence, we measured APOBEC3B-induced CAN1 mutation frequencies in yeast deficient in BER endonucleases or DNA damage tolerance proteins. Strains lacking Apn1, Apn2, Ntg1, Ntg2 or Rev3 displayed wild-type frequencies of APOBEC3B-induced canavanine resistance (CanR). However, strains without error-free lesion bypass proteins Ubc13, Mms2 and Mph1 displayed respective 4.9-, 2.8- and 7.8-fold higher frequency of APOBEC3B-induced CanR. These results indicate that mutations resulting from APOBEC…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Large-scale suppression of recombination predates genomic rearrangements in Neurospora tetrasperma.

A common feature of eukaryote genomes is large chromosomal regions where recombination is absent or strongly reduced, but the factors that cause this reduction are not well understood. Genomic rearrangements have often been implicated, but they may also be a consequence of recombination suppression rather than a cause. In this study, we generate eight high-quality genomic data sets of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma, a fungus that lacks recombination over most of its largest chromosome. The genomes surprisingly reveal collinearity of the non-recombining regions and although large inversions are enriched in these regions, we conclude these inversions to be derived…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Dense and accurate whole-chromosome haplotyping of individual genomes.

The diploid nature of the human genome is neglected in many analyses done today, where a genome is perceived as a set of unphased variants with respect to a reference genome. This lack of haplotype-level analyses can be explained by a lack of methods that can produce dense and accurate chromosome-length haplotypes at reasonable costs. Here we introduce an integrative phasing strategy that combines global, but sparse haplotypes obtained from strand-specific single-cell sequencing (Strand-seq) with dense, yet local, haplotype information available through long-read or linked-read sequencing. We provide comprehensive guidance on the required sequencing depths and reliably assign more than…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hybrid de novo genome assembly and centromere characterization of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly.We used a combination of advanced genomic technologies to iteratively resolve conflicts and super-scaffold the M. murinus genome.We improved the M. murinus genome assembly to a scaffold N50 of 93.32 Mb.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Contributions of Zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to modern maize.

Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17?×?10-8 ~3.87?×?10-8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chromosome evolution in the free-living flatworms: first evidence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in karyotype evolution of Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida).

The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a hidden tetraploid. Its genome was formed by a recent whole genome duplication followed by chromosome fusions. Its karyotype (2n = 8) consists of a pair of large chromosomes (MLI1), which contain regions of all other chromosomes, and three pairs of small metacentric chromosomes. Comparison of MLI1 with metacentrics was performed by painting with microdissected DNA probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization of unique DNA fragments. Regions of MLI1 homologous to small metacentrics appeared to be contiguous. Besides the loss of DNA repeat clusters (pericentromeric and telomeric repeats and the 5S rDNA cluster) from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Scaffolding of long read assemblies using long range contact information.

Long read technologies have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by generating contigs orders of magnitude longer than that of short read assemblies. Although assembly contiguity has increased, it usually does not reconstruct a full chromosome or an arm of the chromosome, resulting in an unfinished chromosome level assembly. To increase the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosome level, different strategies are used which exploit long range contact information between chromosomes in the genome.We develop a scalable and computationally efficient scaffolding method that can boost the assembly contiguity to a large extent using genome-wide chromatin interaction data such as Hi-C.we…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Diversity in grain amaranths and relatives distinguished by genotyping by sequencing (GBS).

The genotyping by sequencing (GBS) method has become a molecular marker technology of choice for many crop plants because of its simultaneous discovery and evaluation of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and utility for germplasm characterization. Genome representation and complexity reduction are the basis for GBS fingerprinting and can vary by species based on genome size and other sequence characteristics. Grain amaranths are a set of three species that were domesticated in the New World to be high protein, pseudo-cereal grain crops. The goal of this research was to employ the GBS technique for diversity evaluation in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic resources and their influence on the detection of the signal of positive selection in genome scans.

Genome scans represent powerful approaches to investigate the action of natural selection on the genetic variation of natural populations and to better understand local adaptation. This is very useful, for example, in the field of conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Thanks to Next Generation Sequencing, genomic resources are growing exponentially, improving genome scan analyses in non-model species. Thousands of SNPs called using Reduced Representation Sequencing are increasingly used in genome scans. Besides, genome sequences are also becoming increasingly available, allowing better processing of short-read data, offering physical localization of variants, and improving haplotype reconstruction and data imputation. Ultimately, genome sequences…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Insights into adaptations to a near-obligate nematode endoparasitic lifestyle from the finished genome of Drechmeria coniospora.

Nematophagous fungi employ three distinct predatory strategies: nematode trapping, parasitism of females and eggs, and endoparasitism. While endoparasites play key roles in controlling nematode populations in nature, their application for integrated pest management is hindered by the limited understanding of their biology. We present a comparative analysis of a high quality finished genome assembly of Drechmeria coniospora, a model endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, integrated with a transcriptomic study. Adaptation of D. coniospora to its almost completely obligate endoparasitic lifestyle led to the simplification of many orthologous gene families involved in the saprophytic trophic mode, while maintaining orthologs of most known fungal…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High quality maize centromere 10 sequence reveals evidence of frequent recombination events.

The ancestral centromeres of maize contain long stretches of the tandemly arranged CentC repeat. The abundance of tandem DNA repeats and centromeric retrotransposons (CR) has presented a significant challenge to completely assembling centromeres using traditional sequencing methods. Here, we report a nearly complete assembly of the 1.85 Mb maize centromere 10 from inbred B73 using PacBio technology and BACs from the reference genome project. The error rates estimated from overlapping BAC sequences are 7 × 10(-6) and 5 × 10(-5) for mismatches and indels, respectively. The number of gaps in the region covered by the reassembly was reduced from 140…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Refined Pichia pastoris reference genome sequence.

Strains of the species Komagataella phaffii are the most frequently used “Pichia pastoris” strains employed for recombinant protein production as well as studies on peroxisome biogenesis, autophagy and secretory pathway analyses. Genome sequencing of several different P. pastoris strains has provided the foundation for understanding these cellular functions in recent genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics experiments. This experimentation has identified mistakes, gaps and incorrectly annotated open reading frames in the previously published draft genome sequences. Here, a refined reference genome is presented, generated with genome and transcriptome sequencing data from multiple P. pastoris strains. Twelve major sequence gaps from 20 to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean.

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show…

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