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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A comprehensive understanding of the biocontrol potential of Bacillus velezensis LM2303 against Fusarium head blight.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by F. graminearum, always brings serious damage to wheat production worldwide. In this study, we found that strain LM2303 had strong antagonist activity against F. graminearum and significantly reduced disease severity of FHB with the control efficiency of 72.3% under field conditions. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the biocontrol potential of strain LM2303 against FHB, an integrated approach of genome mining and chemical analysis was employed. The whole genome of strain LM2303 was obtained and analyzed, showing the largest number of genes/gene clusters associated with biocontrol functions as compared with the known biocontrol…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Diversity of hepatitis E virus genotype 3

Summary Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) can lead to chronic infection in immunocompromised patients, and ribavirin is the treatment of choice. Recently, mutations in the polymerase gene have been associated with ribavirin failure but their frequency before treatment according to HEV-3 subtypes has not been studied on a large data set. We used single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to sequence 115 new complete genomes of HEV-3 infecting French patients. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships, the length of the polyproline region, and mutations in the HEV polymerase gene. Eighty-five (74%) were in the clade HEV-3efg, 28 (24%) in HEV-3chi clade, and 2…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

T-independent IFN? and B cells cooperate to prevent mortality associated with disseminated Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

CD4 T cells and antibody are required for optimal acquired immunity to C. muridarum genital tract infection, and T cell-mediated IFN? production is necessary to clear infection in the absence of humoral immunity. However, the role of T cell-independent immune responses during primary infection remains unclear. We investigated this question by inoculating wild-type and immune-deficient mice with C. muridarum CM001, a clonal isolate capable of enhanced extragenital replication. Genital inoculation of wild-type mice resulted in transient dissemination to the lungs and spleen that then was rapidly cleared from these organs. However, CM001 genital infection proved lethal for STAT1-/- and IFNG-/-…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Stendomycin and pantomycin are identical natural products: Preparation of a functionalized bioactive analogue.

The natural products pantomycin and stendomycin were both reported as antimicrobial agents. We demonstrate by gene cluster analysis, LC-MS analysis, and isolation that these polypeptides are identical, and we identify previously unknown congeners. We show that stendomycin can be chemically modified at its electrophilic dehydrobutyrine moiety yielding the first bioactive analogue of this natural product which can undergo additional functionalization. This compound may be a valuable starting point for molecular probe development, and we invite its distribution to the scientific community.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The hpRNA/RNAi pathway is essential to resolve intragenomic conflict in the Drosophila male germline.

Intragenomic conflicts are fueled by rapidly evolving selfish genetic elements, which induce selective pressures to innovate opposing repressive mechanisms. This is patently manifest in sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive systems, in which distorter and suppressor factors bias and restore equal transmission of X and Y sperm. Here, we reveal that multiple SR suppressors in Drosophila simulans (Nmy and Tmy) encode related hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs), which generate endo-siRNAs that repress the paralogous distorters Dox and MDox. All components in this drive network are recently evolved and largely testis restricted. To connect SR hpRNA function to the RNAi pathway, we generated D. simulans null…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hepacivirus A infection in horses defines distinct envelope hypervariable regions and elucidates potential roles of viral strain and adaptive immune status in determining envelope diversity and infection outcome.

Hepacivirus A (also known as nonprimate hepacivirus and equine hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic virus that can cause both transient and persistent infections in horses. The evolution of intrahost viral populations (quasispecies) has not been studied in detail for hepacivirus A, and its roles in immune evasion and persistence are unknown. To address these knowledge gaps, we first evaluated the envelope gene (E1 and E2) diversity of two different hepacivirus A strains (WSU and CU) in longitudinal blood samples from experimentally infected adult horses, juvenile horses (foals), and foals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Persistent infection with the WSU strain was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii TUA4408L and evaluation of the antiviral activities of its extracellular polysaccharides in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

In lactic acid bacteria, the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been associated with some favorable technological properties as well as health-promoting benefits. Research works have shown the potential of EPS produced by lactobacilli to differentially modulate immune responses. However, most studies were performed in immune cells and few works have concentrated in the immunomodulatory activities of EPS in non-immune cells such as intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effects of EPS have not been studied in detail. In this work, we have performed a genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Antiviral adaptive immunity and tolerance in the mosquito Aedes aegyti

Mosquitoes spread pathogenic arboviruses while themselves tolerate infection. We here characterize an immunity pathway providing long-term antiviral protection and define how this pathway discriminates between self and non-self. Mosquitoes use viral RNAs to create viral derived cDNAs (vDNAs) central to the antiviral response. vDNA molecules are acquired through a process of reverse-transcription and recombination directed by endogenous retrotransposons. These vDNAs are thought to integrate in the host genome as endogenous viral elements (EVEs). Sequencing of pre-integrated vDNA revealed that the acquisition process exquisitely distinguishes viral from host RNA, providing one layer of self-nonself discrimination. Importantly, we show EVE-derived piRNAs have…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High genomic variability in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium parmentieri deciphered from de novo assembled complete genomes.

Pectobacterium parmentieri is a newly established species within the plant pathogenic family Pectobacteriaceae. Bacteria belonging to this species are causative agents of diseases in economically important crops (e.g. potato) in a wide range of different environmental conditions, encountered in Europe, North America, Africa, and New Zealand. Severe disease symptoms result from the activity of P. parmentieri virulence factors, such as plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Interestingly, we observe significant phenotypic differences among P. parmentieri isolates regarding virulence factors production and the abilities to macerate plants. To establish the possible genomic basis of these differences, we sequenced 12 genomes of P.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequence of the cauliflower mushroom Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) and its association with beneficial usage.

Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine because it contains materials with pharmacological activity. Here, we report its 39.0-Mb genome, encoding 13,157 predicted genes, obtained using next-generation sequencing along with RNA-seq mapping data. A phylogenetic analysis by comparison with 25 other fungal genomes revealed that S. crispa diverged from Postia placenta, a brown-rot fungus, 94 million years ago. Several features specific to the genome were found, including the A-mating type locus with the predicted genes for HD1 and HD2 heterodomain transcription factors, the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP), and the B-mating type locus with seven…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome mining of Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674T for the discovery of the gene cluster involved in anticomplement activities and detection of novel xiamycin analogs.

Marine actinobacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674T has been characterized as a novel species, but thus far, its biosynthetic potential remains unexplored. In this study, the high-quality genome sequence of S. xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674T was obtained, and the production of anticomplement agents, xiamycin analogs, and siderophores was investigated by genome mining. Anticomplement compounds are valuable for combating numerous diseases caused by the abnormal activation of the human complement system. The biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) nrps1 resembles that of complestatins, which are potent microbial-derived anticomplement agents. The identification of the nrps1 BGC revealed a core peptide that differed from that in complestatin;…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An improved genome assembly for Larimichthys crocea reveals hepcidin gene expansion with diversified regulation and function.

Larimichthys crocea (large yellow croaker) is a type of perciform fish well known for its peculiar physiological properties and economic value. Here, we constructed an improved version of the L. crocea genome assembly, which contained 26,100 protein-coding genes. Twenty-four pseudo-chromosomes of L. crocea were also reconstructed, comprising 90% of the genome assembly. This improved assembly revealed several expansions in gene families associated with olfactory detection, detoxification, and innate immunity. Specifically, six hepcidin genes (LcHamps) were identified in L. crocea, possibly resulting from lineage-specific gene duplication. All LcHamps possessed similar genomic structures and functional domains, but varied substantially with respect to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Density-dependent enhanced replication of a densovirus in Wolbachia-infected Aedes cells is associated with production of piRNAs and higher virus-derived siRNAs.

The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to restrict a range of RNA viruses in Drosophila melanogaster and transinfected dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Here, we show that Wolbachia infection enhances replication of Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV-1), a single stranded DNA virus, in Aedes cell lines in a density-dependent manner. Analysis of previously produced small RNAs of Aag2 cells showed that Wolbachia-infected cells produced greater absolute abundance of virus-derived short interfering RNAs compared to uninfected cells. Additionally, we found production of virus-derived PIWI-like RNAs (vpiRNA) produced in response to AalDNV-1 infection. Nuclear fractions of Aag2 cells produced a primary vpiRNA…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii 456, resists acid and can persist in the human gut beyond the initial ingestion period.

Probiotics are considered to have multiple beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract, including immunomodulation, pathogen inhibition, and improved host nutrient metabolism. However, extensive characterization of these properties is needed to define suitable clinical applications for probiotic candidates. Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 (LBJ 456) was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-genotoxic effects in a mouse model. Here, we characterize its resistance to gastric and bile acids as well as its ability to inhibit gut pathogens and adhere to host mucosa. While bile resistance and in vitro host attachment properties of LBJ 456 were comparable to other tested probiotics, LBJ 456…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

The kinetoplastid-infecting Bodo saltans virus (BsV), a window into the most abundant giant viruses in the sea.

Giant viruses are ecologically important players in aquatic ecosystems that have challenged concepts of what constitutes a virus. Herein, we present the giant Bodo saltans virus (BsV), the first characterized representative of the most abundant group of giant viruses in ocean metagenomes, and the first isolate of a klosneuvirus, a subgroup of the Mimiviridae proposed from metagenomic data. BsV infects an ecologically important microzooplankton, the kinetoplastid Bodo saltans. Its 1.39 Mb genome encodes 1227 predicted ORFs, including a complex replication machinery. Yet, much of its translational apparatus has been lost, including all tRNAs. Essential genes are invaded by homing endonuclease-encoding…

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