July 7, 2019  |  

Signatures of selection and environmental adaptation across the goat genome post-domestication.

Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we analyzed the AdaptMap goat dataset, which is composed of data from more than 3000 animals collected worldwide and genotyped with the CaprineSNP50 BeadChip. These animals were partitioned into groups based on geographical area, production uses, available records on solid coat color and environmental variables including the sampling geographical coordinates, to investigate the role of natural and/or artificial selection in shaping the genome of goat breeds.Several signatures of selection on different chromosomal regions were detected across the different breeds, sub-geographical clusters, phenotypic and climatic groups. These regions contain genes that are involved in important biological processes, such as milk-, meat- or fiber-related production, coat color, glucose pathway, oxidative stress response, size, and circadian clock differences. Our results confirm previous findings in other species on adaptation to extreme environments and human purposes and provide new genes that could explain some of the differences between goat breeds according to their geographical distribution and adaptation to different environments.These analyses of signatures of selection provide a comprehensive first picture of the global domestication process and adaptation of goat breeds and highlight possible genes that may have contributed to the differentiation of this species worldwide.


July 7, 2019  |  

Synaptogyrin-2 influences replication of Porcine circovirus 2.

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a circular single-stranded DNA virus responsible for a group of diseases collectively known as PCV2 Associated Diseases (PCVAD). Variation in the incidence and severity of PCVAD exists between pigs suggesting a host genetic component involved in pathogenesis. A large-scale genome-wide association study of experimentally infected pigs (n = 974), provided evidence of a host genetic role in PCV2 viremia, immune response and growth during challenge. Host genotype explained 64% of the phenotypic variation for overall viral load, with two major Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) identified on chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the swine leukocyte antigen complex class II locus and on the proximal end of chromosome 12 (SSC12). The SNP having the strongest association, ALGA0110477 (SSC12), explained 9.3% of the genetic and 6.2% of the phenotypic variance for viral load. Dissection of the SSC12 QTL based on gene annotation, genomic and RNA-sequencing, suggested that a missense mutation in the SYNGR2 (SYNGR2 p.Arg63Cys) gene is potentially responsible for the variation in viremia. This polymorphism, located within a protein domain conserved across mammals, results in an amino acid variant SYNGR2 p.63Cys only observed in swine. PCV2 titer in PK15 cells decreased when the expression of SYNGR2 was silenced by specific-siRNA, indicating a role of SYNGR2 in viral replication. Additionally, a PK15 edited clone generated by CRISPR-Cas9, carrying a partial deletion of the second exon that harbors a key domain and the SYNGR2 p.Arg63Cys, was associated with a lower viral titer compared to wildtype PK15 cells (>24 hpi) and supernatant (>48hpi)(P < 0.05). Identification of a non-conservative substitution in this key domain of SYNGR2 suggests that the SYNGR2 p.Arg63Cys variant may underlie the observed genetic effect on viral load.


July 7, 2019  |  

CTX-M-65 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica serotype infantis, United States.

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found blaCTX-M-65 ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the blaCTX-M-65 gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the Arcobacter halophilus type strain CCUG 53805.

Many Arcobacter spp. are free living and are routinely recovered from marine environments. Arcobacter halophilus was isolated from hypersaline lagoon water in the Hawaiian islands, and it was demonstrated to be an obligate halophile. This study describes the complete whole-genome sequence of the A. halophilus type strain, CCUG 53805 (= LA31BT = ATCC BAA-1022T).


July 7, 2019  |  

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the chromosome, and the pY546 plasmid contained several clusters of genes conferring resistance to metals, such as copper (pco), arsenic (ars), tellurite (ter), and tetrathionate (ttr), and genes encoding many divalent cation transporter proteins. The comparative genomic analyses of the whole plasmid sequence and of the heavy metal resistance gene-encoding regions revealed that the plasmid sequences of Klebsiella pneumoniae (such as pKPN-332, pKPN-3967, and pKPN-262) shared the highest similarity with those of pY546. It may be concluded that a variety of ß-lactamase genes present in E. cloacae which confer resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics and the emergence of plasmids carrying heavy metal resistance genes in clinical isolates are alarming and need further surveillance.


July 7, 2019  |  

Alignment-free genome comparison enables accurate geographic sourcing of white oak DNA.

The application of genomic data and bioinformatics for the identification of restricted or illegally-sourced natural products is urgently needed. The taxonomic identity and geographic provenance of raw and processed materials have implications in sustainable-use commercial practices, and relevance to the enforcement of laws that regulate or restrict illegally harvested materials, such as timber. Improvements in genomics make it possible to capture and sequence partial-to-complete genomes from challenging tissues, such as wood and wood products.In this paper, we report the success of an alignment-free genome comparison method, [Formula: see text] that differentiates different geographic sources of white oak (Quercus) species with a high level of accuracy with very small amount of genomic data. The method is robust to sequencing errors, different sequencing laboratories and sequencing platforms.This method offers an approach based on genome-scale data, rather than panels of pre-selected markers for specific taxa. The method provides a generalizable platform for the identification and sourcing of materials using a unified next generation sequencing and analysis framework.


July 7, 2019  |  

Hardwood tree genomics: Unlocking woody plant biology.

Woody perennial angiosperms (i.e., hardwood trees) are polyphyletic in origin and occur in most angiosperm orders. Despite their independent origins, hardwoods have shared physiological, anatomical, and life history traits distinct from their herbaceous relatives. New high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have provided access to numerous woody plant genomes beyond the early reference genomes of Populus and Eucalyptus, references that now include willow and oak, with pecan and chestnut soon to follow. Genomic studies within these diverse and undomesticated species have successfully linked genes to ecological, physiological, and developmental traits directly. Moreover, comparative genomic approaches are providing insights into speciation events while large-scale DNA resequencing of native collections is identifying population-level genetic diversity responsible for variation in key woody plant biology across and within species. Current research is focused on developing genomic prediction models for breeding, defining speciation and local adaptation, detecting and characterizing somatic mutations, revealing the mechanisms of gender determination and flowering, and application of systems biology approaches to model complex regulatory networks underlying quantitative traits. Emerging technologies such as single-molecule, long-read sequencing is being employed as additional woody plant species, and genotypes within species, are sequenced, thus enabling a comparative (“evo-devo”) approach to understanding the unique biology of large woody plants. Resource availability, current genomic and genetic applications, new discoveries and predicted future developments are illustrated and discussed for poplar, eucalyptus, willow, oak, chestnut, and pecan.


July 7, 2019  |  

De novo genome assembly of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) developed through a combination of linked-reads and long-read technologies

Long-read sequencing has greatly contributed to the generation of high quality assemblies, albeit at a high cost. It is also not always clear how to combine sequencing platforms. We sequenced the genome of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), the most important pest in the olive fruits agribusiness industry, using Illumina short-reads, mate-pairs, 10x Genomics linked-reads, Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). The 10x linked-reads assembly gave the most contiguous assembly with an N50 of 2.16 Mb. Scaffolding the linked-reads assembly using long-reads from ONT gave a more contiguous assembly with scaffold N50 of 4.59 Mb. We also present the most extensive transcriptome datasets of the olive fly derived from different tissues and stages of development. Finally, we used the Chromosome Quotient method to identify Y-chromosome scaffolds and show that the long-reads based assembly generates very highly contiguous Y-chromosome assembly.


July 7, 2019  |  

The Draft Genome of the MD-2 Pineapple

The main challenge in assembling plant genome is its ploidy level, repeats content, and polymorphism. The second-generation sequencing delivered the throughput and the accuracy that is crucial to whole-genome sequencing but insufficient and remained challenging for some plant species. It is known that genomes produced by next-gen- eration sequencing produced small contigs that would inflate the number of annotated genes (Varshney et al. 2011) and missed on the transposable elements that are abun- dant in plant genome due to their repetitive nature (Michael and Jackson 2013).


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