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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An improved assembly and annotation of the allohexaploid wheat genome identifies complete families of agronomic genes and provides genomic evidence for chromosomal translocations.

Advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies are generating many high-quality genome sequences, but assemblies of large, repeat-rich polyploid genomes, such as that of bread wheat, remain fragmented and incomplete. We have generated a new wheat whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly using a combination of optimized data types and an assembly algorithm designed to deal with large and complex genomes. The new assembly represents >78% of the genome with a scaffold N50 of 88.8 kb that has a high fidelity to the input data. Our new annotation combines strand-specific Illumina RNA-seq and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length cDNAs to identify 104,091 high-confidence…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Robust and effective methodologies for cryopreservation and DNA extraction from anaerobic gut fungi.

Cell storage and DNA isolation are essential to developing an expanded suite of microorganisms for biotechnology. However, many features of non-model microbes, such as an anaerobic lifestyle and rigid cell wall, present formidable challenges to creating strain repositories and extracting high quality genomic DNA. Here, we establish accessible, high efficiency, and robust techniques to store lignocellulolytic anaerobic gut fungi long term without specialized equipment. Using glycerol as a cryoprotectant, gut fungal isolates were preserved for a minimum of 23 months at -80 °C. Unlike previously reported approaches, this improved protocol is non-toxic and rapid, with samples surviving twice as long…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification and characterization of a carboxypeptidase N1 from red lip mullet (Liza haematocheila); revealing its immune relevance.

Complement system orchestrates the innate and adaptive immunity via the activation, recruitment, and regulation of immune molecules to destroy pathogens. However, regulation of the complement is essential to avoid injuries to the autologous tissues. The present study unveils the characteristic features of an important complement component, anaphylatoxin inactivator from red lip mullet at its molecular and functional level. Mullet carboxypeptidase N1 (MuCPN1) cDNA sequence possessed an open reading frame of 1347 bp, which encoded a protein of 449 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 51?kDa. In silico analysis discovered two domains of PM14-Zn carboxypeptidase and a C-terminal domain…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglet fed with epidermal growth factor-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The bacterial community of the small intestine is a key factor that has strong influence on the health of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in mammals during and shortly after weaning. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the diets of supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) on the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglets.Revealed in this study, at day 7, 14 and 21, respectively, the compositional sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA in the duodenum had no marked difference in microbial diversity from the phylum to species levels between the INVSc1(EV) and other recombinant…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome profiling using single-molecule direct RNA sequencing approach for in-depth understanding of genes in secondary metabolism pathways of Camellia sinensis.

Characteristic secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, theanine and caffeine, are important components of Camellia sinensis, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Previous studies on the biosynthesis of these major secondary metabolites using next-generation sequencing technologies limited the accurately prediction of full-length (FL) splice isoforms. Herein, we applied single-molecule sequencing to pooled tea plant tissues, to provide a more complete transcriptome of C. sinensis. Moreover, we identified 94 FL transcripts and four alternative splicing events for enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, theanine and caffeine. According to the comparison between long-read isoforms and assemble transcripts, we improved the quality…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Koumiss consumption alleviates symptoms of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: A possible link To modulation of gut microbiota

Intestinal dysbiosisis closely related to a variety of medical conditions, especially gastrointestinal diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of koumiss on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in an out-patient clinical trial (n = 10; all female subjects aged 41-55; body mass index ranging from 19.5 to 25.8). Each patient consumed three servings of koumiss per day (i.e. 250 ml daily before each of 3 meals) for a 60-day period. The improvement of patients’ symptoms was monitored by comparing the total scores of symptoms before and after the treatment. Meanwhile, the changes in the patients’ fecal microbiota composition and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-confidence coding and noncoding transcriptome maps.

The advent of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has led to the discovery of unprecedentedly immense transcriptomes encoded by eukaryotic genomes. However, the transcriptome maps are still incomplete partly because they were mostly reconstructed based on RNA-seq reads that lack their orientations (known as unstranded reads) and certain boundary information. Methods to expand the usability of unstranded RNA-seq data by predetermining the orientation of the reads and precisely determining the boundaries of assembled transcripts could significantly benefit the quality of the resulting transcriptome maps. Here, we present a high-performing transcriptome assembly pipeline, called CAFE, that significantly improves the original assemblies, respectively…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effects of metal and metalloid pollutants on the microbiota composition of feces obtained from twelve commercial pig farms across China.

Understanding the metal and metalloid contamination and microbiota composition of pig feces is an important step required to support the design and implementation of effective pollution control and prevention strategies. A survey was implemented in 12 locations across China to investigate the content of metals and metalloids, and the main composition of the microbial communities of commercially reared pigs during two growth periods, defined as the early (Q group) and the later fattening growth phases (H group). These data showed widespread Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe pollution in pig feces. The concentration of Zn in the Q group feces…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa YC0136, a plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium isolated from tobacco rhizosphere.

Paenibacillus polymyxa strain YC0136 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antimicrobial activity, which was isolated from tobacco rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. polymyxa YC0136. Several genes with antifungal and antibacterial activity were discovered. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Community profiling of Fusarium in combination with other plant associated fungi in different crop species using SMRT Sequencing.

Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures. Up to now, most molecular tools that monitor Fusarium communities on plants are limited to certain species and do…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Contrasting distribution patterns between aquatic and terrestrial Phytophthora species along a climatic gradient are linked to functional traits.

Diversity of microbial organisms is linked to global climatic gradients. The genus Phytophthora includes both aquatic and terrestrial plant pathogenic species that display a large variation of functional traits. The extent to which the physical environment (water or soil) modulates the interaction of microorganisms with climate is unknown. Here, we explored the main environmental drivers of diversity and functional trait composition of Phytophthora communities. Communities were obtained by a novel metabarcoding setup based on PacBio sequencing of river filtrates in 96 river sites along a geographical gradient. Species were classified as terrestrial or aquatic based on their phylogenetic clade. Overall,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Fine mapping and candidate gene identification of the genic male-sterile gene ms3 in cabbage 51S.

The ms3 gene responsible for a male-sterile phenotype in cabbage was mapped to a 187.4-kb genomic fragment. The gene BoTPD1, a homolog of Arabidopsis TPD1, was identified as a strong candidate gene. Cabbage 51S is a spontaneous male-sterile mutant. Phenotypic investigation revealed defects in anther cell differentiation, with failure to form the tapetum layer and complete abortion of microsporocytes before the tetrad stage. Genetic analysis indicated that this male sterility was controlled by a single recessive gene, ms3. Using an F2 population, we mapped ms3 to a 187.4-kb interval. BoTPD1 was identified as a candidate from this interval. Sequence analysis…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Chromosome-level reference genome and alternative splicing atlas of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

Bamboo is one of the most important nontimber forestry products worldwide. However, a chromosome-level reference genome is lacking, and an evolutionary view of alternative splicing (AS) in bamboo remains unclear despite emerging omics data and improved technologies.Here, we provide a chromosome-level de novo genome assembly of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) using additional abundance sequencing data and a Hi-C scaffolding strategy. The significantly improved genome is a scaffold N50 of 79.90 Mb, approximately 243 times longer than the previous version. A total of 51,074 high-quality protein-coding loci with intact structures were identified using single-molecule real-time sequencing and manual verification. Moreover, we…

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