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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of structural variants in four African cichlids highlights an association with developmental and immune related genes

African Lakes Cichlids are one of the most impressive example of adaptive radiation. Independently in Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi, several hundreds of species arose within the last 10 million to 100,000 years. Whereas most analyses in cichlids focused on nucleotide substitutions across species to investigate the genetic bases of this explosive radiation, to date, no study has investigated the contribution of structural variants (SVs) to speciation events (through a reduction of gene flow) and adaptation to different ecological niches. Here, we annotate and characterize the repertoires and evolutionary potential of different SV classes (deletion, duplication, inversion, insertions and translocations)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequences of two diploid wild relatives of cultivated sweetpotato reveal targets for genetic improvement

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is a globally important staple food crop, especially for sub-Saharan Africa. Agronomic improvement of sweetpotato has lagged behind other major food crops due to a lack of genomic and genetic resources and inherent challenges in breeding a heterozygous, clonally propagated polyploid. Here, we report the genome sequences of its two diploid relatives, I. trifida and I. triloba, and show that these high-quality genome assemblies are robust references for hexaploid sweetpotato. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses reveal insights into the ancient whole-genome triplication history of Ipomoea and evolutionary relationships within the Batatas complex. Using resequencing data from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Improved nucleic acid extraction protocols for Ganoderma boninense, G. miniatocinctum and G. tornatum.

The first and most crucial step of all molecular techniques is to isolate high quality and intact nucleic acids. However, DNA and RNA isolation from fungal samples are usually difficult due to the cell walls that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis and often resistant to traditional extraction procedures. Although there are many extraction protocols for Ganoderma species, different extraction protocols have been applied to different species to obtain high yields of good quality nucleic acids, especially for genome and transcriptome sequencing. Ganoderma species, mainly G. boninense causes the basal stem rot disease, a devastating disease that plagues the oil palm…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The changing landscape of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Australia: a population-level genomic study.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) represent a major source of nosocomial infection worldwide. In Australia, there has been a recent concerning increase in bacteraemia associated with the vanA genotype, prompting investigation into the genomic epidemiology of VREfm.A population-level study of VREfm (10 November-9 December 2015) was conducted. A total of 321 VREfm isolates (from 286 patients) across Victoria State were collected and sequenced with Illumina NextSeq. SNPs were used to assess relatedness. STs and genes associated with resistance and virulence were identified. The vanA-harbouring plasmid from an isolate from each ST was assembled using long-read data. Illumina reads from remaining isolates…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Report from the Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop.

The goals of the KIR component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) were to encourage and educate researchers to begin analyzing KIR at allelic resolution, and to survey the nature and extent of KIR allelic diversity across human populations. To represent worldwide diversity, we analyzed 1269 individuals from ten populations, focusing on the most polymorphic KIR genes, which express receptors having three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains (KIR3DL1/S1, KIR3DL2 and KIR3DL3). We identified 13 novel alleles of KIR3DL1/S1, 13 of KIR3DL2 and 18 of KIR3DL3. Previously identified alleles, corresponding to 33 alleles of KIR3DL1/S1, 38 of KIR3DL2, and 43…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Desiccation Tolerance Evolved through Gene Duplication and Network Rewiring in Lindernia.

Although several resurrection plant genomes have been sequenced, the lack of suitable dehydration-sensitive outgroups has limited genomic insights into the origin of desiccation tolerance. Here, we utilized a comparative system of closely related desiccation-tolerant (Lindernia brevidens) and -sensitive (Lindernia subracemosa) species to identify gene- and pathway-level changes associated with the evolution of desiccation tolerance. The two high-quality Lindernia genomes we assembled are largely collinear, and over 90% of genes are conserved. L. brevidens and L. subracemosa have evidence of an ancient, shared whole-genome duplication event, and retained genes have neofunctionalized, with desiccation-specific expression in L. brevidens Tandem gene duplicates also…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into multidrug-resistance, mating and virulence in Candida auris and related emerging species.

Candida auris is an emergent multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing increasing reports of outbreaks. While distantly related to C. albicans and C. glabrata, C. auris is closely related to rarely observed and often multidrug-resistant species from the C. haemulonii clade. Here, we analyze near complete genome assemblies for the four C. auris clades and three related species, and map intra- and inter-species rearrangements across the seven chromosomes. Using RNA-Seq-guided gene predictions, we find that most mating and meiosis genes are conserved and that clades contain either the MTLa or MTLa mating loci. Comparing the genomes of these emerging species to those…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons of closely related malaria parasites differing in virulence and sequestration pattern.

Background: Malaria parasite species differ greatly in the harm they do to humans. While P. falciparum kills hundreds of thousands per year, P. vivax kills much less often and P. malariae is relatively benign. Strains of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi show phenotypic variation in virulence during infections of laboratory mice. This make it an excellent species to study genes which may be responsible for this trait. By understanding the mechanisms which underlie differences in virulence we can learn how parasites adapt to their hosts and how we might prevent disease. Methods: Here we present a complete reference genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of a B chromosome in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.

B chromosomes (Bs) were discovered a century ago, and since then, most studies have focused on describing their distribution and abundance using traditional cytogenetics. Only recently have attempts been made to understand their structure and evolution at the level of DNA sequence. Many questions regarding the origin, structure, function, and evolution of B chromosomes remain unanswered. Here, we identify B chromosome sequences from several species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi by examining the ratios of DNA sequence coverage in individuals with or without B chromosomes. We examined the efficiency of this method, and compared results using both Illumina and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of 84 Pectobacterium genomes reveals the variations related to a pathogenic lifestyle.

Pectobacterium spp. are necrotrophic bacterial plant pathogens of the family Pectobacteriaceae, responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases of important crops and ornamental plants including soft rot, blackleg, and stem wilt. P. carotovorum is a genetically heterogeneous species consisting of three valid subspecies, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb), P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum (Pco).Thirty-two P. carotovorum strains had their whole genomes sequenced, including the first complete genome of Pco and another circular genome of Pcb, as well as the high-coverage genome sequences for 30 additional strains covering Pcc, Pcb, and Pco. In combination with 52…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), a worldwide parasite of social bee colonies, provides insights into detoxification and herbivory.

The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida; ATUMI) is an invasive parasite of bee colonies. ATUMI feeds on both fruits and bee nest products, facilitating its spread and increasing its impact on honey bees and other pollinators. We have sequenced and annotated the ATUMI genome, providing the first genomic resources for this species and for the Nitidulidae, a beetle family that is closely related to the extraordinarily species-rich clade of beetles known as the Phytophaga. ATUMI thus provides a contrasting view as a neighbor for one of the most successful known animal groups.We present a robust genome assembly and a gene…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of the red silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba)

Bombax ceiba L. is a beautiful and deciduous tree with great ecological and economic importance. The third generation sequencing of chloroplast genome of B. ceiba was conducted on the PacBio sequencing platform (Pacific Biosciences). The complete chloroplast genome was 158,997?bp, which contains a large single-copy (LSC) region (89,021?bp), a small single-copy (SSC) region (21,110?bp), and two inverted repeats (IRs) (24,433?bp). In total, 116 genes were annotated, including 81 protein-coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 27 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree showed that B. ceiba was closely clustered with one clade of Malvaceae.

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