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September 1, 2018

Hepacivirus A infection in horses defines distinct envelope hypervariable regions and elucidates potential roles of viral strain and adaptive immune status in determining envelope diversity and infection outcome.

Hepacivirus A (also known as nonprimate hepacivirus and equine hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic virus that can cause both transient and persistent infections in horses. The evolution of intrahost viral populations (quasispecies) has not been studied in detail for hepacivirus A, and its roles in immune evasion and persistence are unknown. To address these knowledge gaps, we first evaluated the envelope gene (E1 and E2) diversity of two different hepacivirus A strains (WSU and CU) in longitudinal blood samples from experimentally infected adult horses, juvenile horses (foals), and foals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Persistent infection with the WSU strain was…

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August 1, 2018

The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) T cell receptor loci exhibit V subgroup synteny and chain-specific evolution.

The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has limited diversity in the immunoglobulin heavy chain. We therefore investigated the antigen receptor loci of the other arm of the adaptive immune system: the T cell receptor. Manatees are the first species from Afrotheria, a basal eutherian superorder, to have an in-depth characterization of all T cell receptor loci. By annotating the genome and expressed transcripts, we found that each chain has distinct features that correlates to their individual functions. The genomic organization also plays a role in modulating sequence conservation between species. There were extensive V subgroup synteny blocks in the TRA…

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March 27, 2018

Genomic diversity of Taylorella equigenitalis introduced into the United States from 1978 to 2012.

Contagious equine metritis is a disease of worldwide concern in equids. The United States is considered to be free of the disease although sporadic outbreaks have occurred over the last few decades that were thought to be associated with the importation of horses. The objective of this study was to create finished, reference quality genomes that characterize the diversity of Taylorella equigenitalis isolates introduced into the USA, and identify their differences. Five isolates of T. equigenitalis associated with introductions into the USA from unique sources were sequenced using both short and long read chemistries allowing for complete assembly and annotation.…

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February 1, 2018

Transposon-associated lincosamide resistance lnu(C) gene identified in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae ST83.

Treatment of Swine Dysentery (SD) caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) is carried out using antimicrobials such as macrolides, lincosamides and pleuromutilins leading to the selection of resistant strains. Whole genome sequencing of a multidrug-resistant B. hyodysenteriae strain called BH718 belonging to sequence type (ST) 83 revealed the presence of the lincosamide resistance gene lnu(C) on the small 1724-bp transposon MTnSag1. The strain also contains an A to T substitution at position 2058 (A2058T) in the 23S rRNA gene which is known to be associated with macrolide and lincosamide resistance in B. hyodysenteriae. Testing of additional strains showed that those…

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November 1, 2017

Convergence of plasmid architectures drives emergence of multi-drug resistance in a clonally diverse Escherichia coli population from a veterinary clinical care setting.

The purpose of this study was to determine the plasmid architecture and context of resistance genes in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections in dogs. Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing were applied to assemble the complete genomes of E. coli strains associated with clinical urinary tract infections, which were either phenotypically MDR or drug susceptible. This revealed that multiple distinct families of plasmids were associated with building an MDR phenotype. Plasmid-mediated AmpC (CMY-2) beta-lactamase resistance was associated with a clonal group of IncI1 plasmids that has remained stable in isolates collected up to a…

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September 21, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain KM014, a clinical isolate from South Korea.

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia, resulting in considerable economic losses in the swine industry. A few genome sequences of M. hyopneumoniae have been reported to date, implying that additional genome data are needed for further genetic studies. Here, we present the annotated genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain KM014. Copyright © 2017 Han et al.

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August 1, 2017

A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last…

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August 1, 2017

Molecular cloning and functional expression of the K(+) channel KV7.1 and the regulatory subunit KCNE1 from equine myocardium.

The voltage-gated K(+)-channel KV7.1 and the subunit KCNE1, encoded by the KCNQ1 and KCNE1 genes, respectively, are responsible for termination of the cardiac action potential. In humans, mutations in these genes can predispose patients to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD).To characterize equine KV7.1/KCNE1 currents and compare them to human KV7.1/KCNE1 currents to determine whether KV7.1/KCNE1 plays a similar role in equine and human hearts.mRNA encoding KV7.1 and KCNE1 was isolated from equine hearts, sequenced, and cloned into expression vectors. The channel subunits were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or CHO-K1 cells and characterized using voltage-clamp techniques.Equine KV7.1/KCNE1 expressed…

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June 9, 2017

Clostridium chauvoei, an evolutionary dead-end pathogen.

Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30…

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June 1, 2017

Comparative analysis of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase CTX-M-65-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates from humans, food animals, and retail chickens in the United States.

We sequenced the genomes of ten Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis containing blaCTX-M-65 isolated from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine NARMS surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes (aph (4)-Ia, aac (3)-IVa, aph(3' )-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1) located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid (~316-323kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolated from a patient…

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April 24, 2017

Normalized long read RNA sequencing in chicken reveals transcriptome complexity similar to human.

Despite the significance of chicken as a model organism, our understanding of the chicken transcriptome is limited compared to human. This issue is common to all non-human vertebrate annotations due to the difficulty in transcript identification from short read RNAseq data. While previous studies have used single molecule long read sequencing for transcript discovery, they did not perform RNA normalization and 5'-cap selection which may have resulted in lower transcriptome coverage and truncated transcript sequences.We sequenced normalised chicken brain and embryo RNA libraries with Pacific Bioscience Iso-Seq. 5' cap selection was performed on the embryo library to provide methodological comparison.…

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March 30, 2017

Complete genome sequences of two genotype A2 small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from infected U.S. sheep.

Two distinct subgroups of genotype A2 small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) have been identified in the United States that infect sheep with specific host transmembrane protein 154 (TMEM154) diplotypes. Here, we report the first two complete genome sequences of SRLV strains infecting U.S. sheep belonging to genotype A2, subgroups 1 and 2. Copyright © 2017 Workman et al.

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February 8, 2017

Novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. ‘H. enhydrae sp. nov.’ isolated from inflamed gastric tissue of southern sea otters.

A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp. had lateral and polar sheathed flagella and had a slightly curved rod morphology. 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses…

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