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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Suppressed recombination and unique candidate genes in the divergent haplotype encoding Fhb1, a major Fusarium head blight resistance locus in wheat.

Fine mapping and sequencing revealed 28 genes in the non-recombining haplotype containing Fhb1 . Of these, only a GDSL lipase gene shows a pathogen-dependent expression pattern. Fhb1 is a prominent Fusarium head blight resistance locus of wheat, which has been successfully introgressed in adapted breeding material, where it confers a significant increase in overall resistance to the causal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the fungal virulence factor and mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. The Fhb1 region has been resolved for the susceptible wheat reference genotype Chinese Spring, yet the causal gene itself has not been identified in resistant cultivars. Here, we report the establishment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis.

Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55?Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the first KPC-type carbapenemase-positive Proteus mirabilis strain from a bloodstream infectio

Sequencing of the blaKPC-positive strain Proteus mirabilis AOUC-001 was performed using both the MiSeq and PacBio RS II platforms and yielded a single molecule of 4,272,433 bp, representing the complete chromosome. Genome analysis showed the presence of several acquired resistance determinants, including two copies of blaKPC-2 carried on a fragment of a KPC-producing plasmid previously described in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Di Pilato et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Homologous recombination within large chromosomal regions facilitates acquisition of beta-lactam and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

The transfer of DNA between Enterococcus faecium strains has been characterized by both the movement of well-defined genetic elements and by the large-scale transfer of genomic DNA fragments. In this work we report on the whole genome analysis of transconjugants resulting from mating events between the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium C68 strain and vancomycin susceptible D344RRF to discern the mechanism by which the transferred regions enter the recipient chromosome. Vancomycin-resistant transconjugants from five independent matings were analysed by whole genome sequencing. In all cases but one, the penicillin binding protein 5 gene (pbp5) and the Tn5382-vancomycin resistance transposon were transferred together…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen.

Genomic plasticity enables adaptation to changing environments, which is especially relevant for pathogens that engage in “arms races” with their hosts. In many pathogens, genes mediating virulence cluster in highly variable, transposon-rich, physically distinct genomic compartments. However, understanding of the evolution of these compartments, and the role of transposons therein, remains limited. Here, we show that transposons are the major driving force for adaptive genome evolution in the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae We show that highly variable lineage-specific (LS) regions evolved by genomic rearrangements that are mediated by erroneous double-strand repair, often utilizing transposons. We furthermore show that recent…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mobile genetic elements: in silico, in vitro, in vivo.

Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), also called transposable elements (TEs), represent universal components of most genomes and are intimately involved in nearly all aspects of genome organization, function and evolution. However, there is currently a gap between the fast pace of TE discovery in silico, driven by the exponential growth of comparative genomic studies, and a limited number of experimental models amenable to more traditional in vitro and in vivo studies of structural, mechanistic and regulatory properties of diverse MGEs. Experimental and computational scientists came together to bridge this gap at a recent conference, ‘Mobile Genetic Elements: in silico, in vitro, in vivo’, held at…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and analysis of the Japanese morning glory Ipomoea nil.

Ipomoea is the largest genus in the family Convolvulaceae. Ipomoea nil (Japanese morning glory) has been utilized as a model plant to study the genetic basis of floricultural traits, with over 1,500 mutant lines. In the present study, we have utilized second- and third-generation-sequencing platforms, and have reported a draft genome of I. nil with a scaffold N50 of 2.88?Mb (contig N50 of 1.87?Mb), covering 98% of the 750?Mb genome. Scaffolds covering 91.42% of the assembly are anchored to 15 pseudo-chromosomes. The draft genome has enabled the identification and cataloguing of the Tpn1 family transposons, known as the major mutagen…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A novel plasmid, pSx1, harboring a new Tn1696 derivative from extensively drug-resistant Shewanella xiamenensis encoding OXA-416.

The whole genome sequencing of extensively drug-resistant Shewanella xiamenensis T17 isolated from hospital effluents in Algeria revealed the presence of a novel 268.4?kb plasmid designated pSx1, which carries several antibiotic-resistance genes in the novel Tn1696 derivative (Tn6297), in addition to the chromosomal blaOXA-48-like gene (blaOXA-416). The presence of the plasmid was confirmed by nuclease S1-PFGE analysis and transformation by electroporation into Escherichia coli DH10B. Tn6297 contains an In27 class 1 integron harboring the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 array, msr(E) and mph(E) associated with IS26; a new efflux pump multidrug resistance composite transposon delimited by two ISEc29s; Tn-tet harboring tetR and tetA(C); a class…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mobilization of Pack-CACTA transposons in Arabidopsis suggests the mechanism of gene shuffling.

Pack-TYPE transposons are a unique class of potentially mobile non-autonomous elements that can capture, merge and relocate fragments of chromosomal DNA. It has been postulated that their activity accelerates the evolution of host genes. However, this important presumption is based only on the sequences of currently inactive Pack-TYPE transposons and the acquisition of chromosomal DNA has not been recorded in real time. Analysing the DNA copy number variation in hypomethylated Arabidopsis lines, we have now for the first time witnessed the mobilization of novel Pack-TYPE elements related to the CACTA transposon family, over several plant generations. Remarkably, these elements can…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A high throughput screen for active human transposable elements.

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic sequences that randomly propagate within their host’s genome. This mobility has the potential to affect gene transcription and cause disease. However, TEs are technically challenging to identify, which complicates efforts to assess the impact of TE insertions on disease. Here we present a targeted sequencing protocol and computational pipeline to identify polymorphic and novel TE insertions using next-generation sequencing: TE-NGS. The method simultaneously targets the three subfamilies that are responsible for the majority of recent TE activity (L1HS, AluYa5/8, and AluYb8/9) thereby obviating the need for multiple experiments and reducing the amount of input…

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