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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli strain from the H30Rx subclone of sequence type 131 from a patient with recurrent urinary tract infections, closely related to a lethal urosepsis isolate from the patient’s sister.

We report here the complete genome sequence, including five plasmid sequences, of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) strain JJ1887. The strain was isolated in 2007 in the United States from a patient with recurrent cystitis, whose caregiver sister died from urosepsis caused by a nearly identical strain. Copyright © 2016 Johnson et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The challenges of implementing next generation sequencing across a large healthcare system, and the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibilities of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the healthcare system of the U.S. Department of Defense.

We sought to: 1) provide an overview of the genomic epidemiology of an extensive collection of carbapenemase-producing bacteria (CPB) collected in the U.S. Department of Defense health system; 2) increase awareness of the public availability of the sequences, isolates, and customized antimicrobial resistance database of that system; and 3) illustrate challenges and offer mitigations for implementing next generation sequencing (NGS) across large health systems.Prospective surveillance and system-wide implementation of NGS.288-hospital healthcare network.All phenotypically carbapenem resistant bacteria underwent CarbaNP® testing and PCR, followed by NGS. Commercial (Newbler and Geneious), on-line (ResFinder), and open-source software (Btrim, FLASh, Bowtie2, an Samtools) were used…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Horizontal transfer of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids and comparison with hospital epidemiology data.

Carbapenemase-producing organisms have spread worldwide, and infections with these bacteria cause significant morbidity. Horizontal transfer of plasmids that encode carbapenemases plays an important role in the spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we investigate parameters regulating conjugation using an E. coli laboratory strain that lacks plasmids or restriction-enzyme modification systems as a recipient and also using patient isolates as donors and recipients. Because conjugation is tightly regulated, we performed a systematic analysis of the transfer of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC)-encoding plasmids into multiple strains under different environmental conditions to investigate critical variables. We used four blaKPC-plasmids isolated from patient…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Plasmid dynamics in KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae during long-term patient colonization.

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are formidable hospital pathogens that pose a serious threat to patients around the globe due to a rising incidence in health care facilities, high mortality rates associated with infection, and potential to spread antibiotic resistance to other bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli Over 6 months in 2011, 17 patients at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center became colonized with a highly virulent, transmissible carbapenem-resistant strain of K. pneumoniae Our real-time genomic sequencing tracked patient-to-patient routes of transmission and informed epidemiologists’ actions to monitor and control this outbreak. Two of these patients remained colonized with carbapenemase-producing…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Distinct Salmonella enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete circular genome sequence of successful ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: one-megabase genomic inversion, IS256’s spread, and evolution of Russia ST8-IV.

ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaß split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic characterization of a blaVEB-2-carrying plasmid in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

This study reports the first detection of blaVEB-2 gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain isolated from a shrimp sample. The blaVEB-2 was carried on a novel Inc type plasmid, was likely to originate from aquatic organisms upon comparison with other known genetic elements in the GenBank. However, the plasmid contains resistance elements usually harbored by members of Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting that gene transfer events occurred and contributed to the formation of this multidrug resistance-encoding plasmid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Use of WGS data for investigation of a long-term NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca.

An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated.From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients at Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. In silico resistance genes, Inc plasmid types and STs (MLST) were obtained from WGS data from 24 meropenem-resistant isolates (13 C. freundii, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Escherichia coli and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca) and 1 meropenem-susceptible K. oxytoca. The sequences of the meropenem-resistant C. freundii isolates were compared by phylogenetic analyses. In vitro susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested. Furthermore,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome and plasmid analysis of blaIMP-4 -carrying Citrobacter freundii B38.

Sequencing of the blaIMP-4 -carrying C. freundii B38 using PacBio SMRT technique revealed that the genome contained a chromosome of 5,134,500 bp, and three plasmids, pOZ172 (127,005 bp), pOZ181 (277,592 bp), and pOZ182 (18,467 bp). Plasmid pOZ172 was identified as IncFIIY, like pP10164-NDM and pNDM-EcGN174. It carries a class 1 integron with four cassettes: blaIMP-4-qacG2-aacA4-aphA15, and a complete hybrid tni module (tniR-tniQ-tniB-tniA). The recombination of tniR from Tn402 (identical) with tniQBA (99%) from Tn5053 occurred within the res site of Tn402/5053. The Tn402/5053-like integron, named Tn6017, was inserted into Tn1722 at the res II site. The replication, partitioning and transfer…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Tracking inter-institutional spread of NDM and identification of a novel NDM-positive plasmid, pSg1-NDM, using next-generation sequencing approaches.

Owing to gene transposition and plasmid conjugation, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) is typically identified among varied Enterobacteriaceae species and STs. We used WGS to characterize the chromosomal and plasmid molecular epidemiology of NDM transmission involving four institutions in Singapore.Thirty-three Enterobacteriaceae isolates (collection years 2010-14) were sequenced using short-read sequencing-by-synthesis and analysed. Long-read single molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRTS) was used to characterize genetically a novel plasmid pSg1-NDM carried on Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147.In 20 (61%) isolates, blaNDM was located on the pNDM-ECS01 plasmid in the background of multiple bacterial STs, including eight K. pneumoniae STs and five Escherichia coli STs. In six…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transfer of the methicillin resistance genomic island among staphylococci by conjugation.

Methicillin resistance creates a major obstacle for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The resistance gene, mecA, is carried on a large (20 kb to?>?60 kb) genomic island, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), that excises from and inserts site-specifically into the staphylococcal chromosome. However, although SCCmec has been designated a mobile genetic element, a mechanism for its transfer has not been defined. Here we demonstrate the capture and conjugative transfer of excised SCCmec. SCCmec was captured on pGO400, a mupirocin-resistant derivative of the pGO1/pSK41 staphylococcal conjugative plasmid lineage, and pGO400::SCCmec (pRM27) was transferred by filter-mating into both homologous and heterologous S.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assembly and transfer of tripartite integrative and conjugative genetic elements.

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as “genomic islands” within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts of legumes. Here we report the discovery of symbiosis ICEs that exist as three separate chromosomal regions when integrated in their hosts, but through recombination assemble as a single circular ICE for conjugative transfer. Whole-genome comparisons revealed exconjugants derived from nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia received three separate chromosomal regions from the donor Mesorhizobium ciceri WSM1271. The three regions were each bordered by two nonhomologous integrase attachment (att) sites, which together comprised three homologous pairs of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of six Legionella pneumophila isolates from two collocated outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease in 2005 and 2008 in Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad, Norway.

Here, we report the complete genome sequences of Legionella pneumophila isolates from two collocated outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease in 2005 and 2008 in Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad, Norway. One clinical and two environmental isolates were sequenced from each outbreak. The genome of all six isolates consisted of a 3.36 Mb-chromosome, while the 2005 genomes featured an additional 68 kb-episome sharing high sequence similarity with the L. pneumophila Lens plasmid. All six genomes contained multiple mobile genetic elements including novel combinations of type-IVA secretion systems. A comparative genomics study will be launched to resolve the genetic relationship between the L. pneumophila isolates. Copyright © 2016 Dybwad et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The draft genome of whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host adaptation, and insecticide resistance.

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is among the 100 worst invasive species in the world. As one of the most important crop pests and virus vectors, B. tabaci causes substantial crop losses and poses a serious threat to global food security. We report the 615-Mb high-quality genome sequence of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), the first genome sequence in the Aleyrodidae family, which contains 15,664 protein-coding genes. The B. tabaci genome is highly divergent from other sequenced hemipteran genomes, sharing no detectable synteny. A number of known detoxification gene families, including cytochrome P450s and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, are significantly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo mutations resolve disease transmission pathways in clonal malaria

Detecting de novo mutations in viral and bacterial pathogens enables researchers to reconstruct detailed networks of disease transmission and is a key technique in genomic epidemiology. However, these techniques have not yet been applied to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in which a larger genome, slower generation times, and a complex life cycle make them difficult to implement. Here, we demonstrate the viability of de novo mutation studies in P. falciparum for the first time. Using a combination of sequencing, library preparation, and genotyping methods that have been optimized for accuracy in low-complexity genomic regions, we have detected de novo…

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