Owing to gene transposition and plasmid conjugation, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) is typically identified among varied Enterobacteriaceae species and STs. We used WGS to characterize the chromosomal and plasmid molecular epidemiology of NDM transmission involving four institutions in Singapore.Thirty-three Enterobacteriaceae isolates (collection years 2010-14) were sequenced using short-read sequencing-by-synthesis and analysed. Long-read single molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRTS) was used to characterize genetically a novel plasmid pSg1-NDM carried on Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147.In 20 (61%) isolates, blaNDM was located on the pNDM-ECS01 plasmid in the background of multiple bacterial STs, including eight K. pneumoniae STs and five Escherichia coli STs. In six (18%) isolates, a novel blaNDM-positive plasmid, pSg1-NDM, was found only in K. pneumoniae ST147. The pSg1-NDM-K. pneumoniae ST147 clone (Sg1-NDM) was fully sequenced using SMRTS. pSg1-NDM, a 90?103 bp IncR plasmid, carried genes responsible for resistance to six classes of antimicrobials. A large portion of pSg1-NDM had no significant homology to any known plasmids in GenBank. pSg1-NDM had no conjugative transfer region. Combined chromosomal-plasmid phylogenetic analysis revealed five clusters of clonal bacterial NDM-positive plasmid transmission, of which two were inter-institution clusters. The largest inter-institution cluster involved six K. pneumoniae ST147-pSg1-NDM isolates. Fifteen patients were involved in transmission clusters, of which four had ward contact, six had hospital contact and five had an unknown transmission link.A combined sequencing-by-synthesis and SMRTS approach can determine effectively the transmission clusters of blaNDM and genetically characterize novel plasmids. Plasmid molecular epidemiology is important to understanding NDM spread as blaNDM-positive plasmids can conjugate extensively across species and STs.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy