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August 12, 2019

Accurate circular consensus long-read sequencing improves variant detection and assembly of a human genome

The DNA sequencing technologies in use today produce either highly accurate short reads or less-accurate long reads. We report the optimization of circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to improve the accuracy of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing (PacBio) and generate highly accurate (99.8%) long high-fidelity (HiFi) reads with an average length of 13.5 kilobases (kb). We applied our approach to sequence the well-characterized human HG002/NA24385 genome and obtained precision and recall rates of at least 99.91% for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 95.98% for insertions and deletions <50 bp (indels) and 95.99% for structural variants. Our CCS method matches or exceeds the ability of short-read…

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July 19, 2019

Application Brief: Targeted sequencing for amplicons – Best Practices

With Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Sequel System, you can easily and cost effectively generate highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads, >99% single-molecule accuracy) from genes or regions of interest ranging in size from several hundred base pairs to 20 kb. Target all types of variation across relevant genomic regions, including low complexity regions like repeat expansions, promoters, and flanking regions of transposable elements.

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July 17, 2019

Webinar: Variant calling and de novo genome assembly with PacBio HiFi reads

In this webinar, Sarah Kingan, Staff Scientist, PacBio, presents recent work on de novo genome assembly using PacBio HiFi reads. She highlights the benefits of HiFi data for base level accuracy, haplotype phasing, and ease of computation. And in samples ranging from human to plants, she benchmarks various tools for HiFi assembly and phasing, including the newly extended FALCON-Unzip assembler. Subsequently, Andrew Carroll, Genomics Product Lead, GoogleAI, explores how the GoogleAI team retrained DeepVariant, a highly accurate SNP and Indel caller, for PacBio HiFi data. The resulting DeepVariant models achieve comparable accuracies to short-read methods with the additional benefit of…

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July 1, 2019

Genetic Variation, Comparative Genomics, and the Diagnosis of Disease.

The discovery of mutations associated with human genetic dis- ease is an exercise in comparative genomics (see Glossary). Although there are many different strategies and approaches, the central premise is that affected persons harbor a significant excess of pathogenic DNA variants as com- pared with a group of unaffected persons (controls) that is either clinically defined1 or established by surveying large swaths of the general population.2 The more exclu- sive the variant is to the disease, the greater its penetrance, the larger its effect size, and the more relevant it becomes to both disease diagnosis and future therapeutic investigation. The…

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June 18, 2019

Webinar: Smoking out structural variants in the cannabis genome

In this webinar, Sarah Kingan, Staff Scientist, PacBio, and Kevin McKernan, Founder and Chief Science Officer, Medicinal Genomics, describe their work assembling the most comprehensive and complete cannabis genome of a Type II (THCA and CBDA producing) plant. They also share the latest advances in cannabis genomics, including how PacBio long-read sequencing enables high-quality genomics research in plants, annotation of the cannabis reference genome using full-length transcript sequencing, and new insights into cannabinoid synthesis across different types of cannabis plants.

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June 15, 2019

Comprehensive variant detection in a human genome with highly accurate long reads

Introduction: Long-read sequencing has been applied successfully to assemble genomes and detect structural variants. However, due to high raw-read error rates (10-15%), it has remained difficult to call small variants from long reads. Recent improvements in library preparation and sequencing chemistry have increased length, accuracy, and throughput of PacBio circular consensus sequencing (CCS) reads, resulting in 10-20kb reads with average read quality above 99%. Materials and Methods: We sequenced a 12kb library from human reference sample HG002 to 18-fold coverage on the PacBio Sequel II System with three SMRT Cells 8M. The CCS algorithm was used to generate highly-accurate (average…

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June 5, 2019

Webinar: Sequence with Confidence – Introducing the Sequel II System

In this webinar, Jonas Korlach, Chief Scientific Officer, PacBio provides an overview of the features and the advantages of the new Sequel II System. Kiran Garimella, Senior Computational Scientist, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, describes his work sequencing humans with HiFi reads enabling discovery of structural variants undetectable in short reads. Luke Tallon, Scientific Director, Genomics Resource Center, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, covers the GRC’s work on bacterial multiplexing, 16S microbiome profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. Finally, Shane McCarthy, Senior Research Associate, University of Cambridge, focuses on the scaling and affordability of high-quality…

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June 3, 2019

Structural variant detection in crops using low-fold coverage long-read sequencing

Genomics studies have shown that the insertions, deletions, duplications, translocations, inversions, and tandem repeat expansions in the structural variant (SV) size range (>50 bp) contribute to the evolution of traits and often have significant associations with agronomically important phenotypes. However, most SVs are too small to detect with array comparative genomic hybridization and too large to reliably discover with short-read DNA sequencing. While de novo assembly is the most comprehensive way to identify variants in a genome, recent studies in human genomes show that PacBio SMRT Sequencing sensitively detects structural variants at low coverage. Here we present SV characterization in…

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June 1, 2019

High-coverage, long-read sequencing of Han Chinese trio reference samples.

Single-molecule long-read sequencing datasets were generated for a son-father-mother trio of Han Chinese descent that is part of the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) consortium portfolio. The dataset was generated using the Pacific Biosciences Sequel System. The son and each parent were sequenced to an average coverage of 60 and 30, respectively, with N50 subread lengths between 16 and 18?kb. Raw reads and reads aligned to both the GRCh37 and GRCh38 are available at the NCBI GIAB ftp site (ftp://ftp-trace.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/giab/ftp/data/ChineseTrio/). The GRCh38 aligned read data are archived in NCBI SRA (SRX4739017, SRX4739121, and SRX4739122). This dataset is available for anyone…

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June 1, 2019

Profiling the genome-wide landscape of tandem repeat expansions.

Tandem repeat (TR) expansions have been implicated in dozens of genetic diseases, including Huntington's Disease, Fragile X Syndrome, and hereditary ataxias. Furthermore, TRs have recently been implicated in a range of complex traits, including gene expression and cancer risk. While the human genome harbors hundreds of thousands of TRs, analysis of TR expansions has been mainly limited to known pathogenic loci. A major challenge is that expanded repeats are beyond the read length of most next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets and are not profiled by existing genome-wide tools. We present GangSTR, a novel algorithm for genome-wide genotyping of both short and…

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June 1, 2019

Evaluation of the performance of copy number variant prediction tools for the detection of deletions from whole genome sequencing data.

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has increased in popularity and decreased in cost over the past decade, rendering this approach as a viable and sensitive method for variant detection. In addition to its utility for single nucleotide variant detection, WGS data has the potential to detect Copy Number Variants (CNV) to fine resolution. Many CNV detection software packages have been developed exploiting four main types of data: read pair, split read, read depth, and assembly based methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of each of these main approaches in detecting germline deletions.WGS data and high confidence…

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June 1, 2019

The Genome of C57BL/6J “Eve”, the Mother of the Laboratory Mouse Genome Reference Strain.

Isogenic laboratory mouse strains enhance reproducibility because individual animals are genetically identical. For the most widely used isogenic strain, C57BL/6, there exists a wealth of genetic, phenotypic, and genomic data, including a high-quality reference genome (GRCm38.p6). Now 20 years after the first release of the mouse reference genome, C57BL/6J mice are at least 26 inbreeding generations removed from GRCm38 and the strain is now maintained with periodic reintroduction of cryorecovered mice derived from a single breeder pair, aptly named Adam and Eve. To provide an update to the mouse reference genome that more accurately represents the genome of today's C57BL/6J…

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May 28, 2019

Improved assembly and variant detection of a haploid human genome using single-molecule, high-fidelity long reads

The sequence and assembly of human genomes using long-read sequencing technologies has revolutionized our understanding of structural variation and genome organization. We compared the accuracy, continuity, and gene annotation of genome assemblies generated from either high-fidelity (HiFi) or continuous long-read (CLR) datasets from the same complete hydatidiform mole human genome. We find that the HiFi sequence data assemble an additional 10% of duplicated regions and more accurately represent the structure of large tandem repeats, as validated with orthogonal analyses. Additionally, the HiFi genome assembly was generated in significantly less time with fewer computational resources than the CLR assembly. Although the…

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