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November 1, 2019

TSD: A computational tool to study the complex structural variants using PacBio targeted sequencing data

The PacBio sequencing is a powerful approach to study the DNA or RNA sequences in a longer scope. It is especially useful in exploring the complex structural variants generated by random integration or multiple rearrangements of internal or external sequences. However, there is still no tool designed to uncover their structural organization in the host genome. Here, we present a tool, TSD, for complex structural variant discovery using PacBio targeted sequencing data. It allows researchers to identify and visualize the genomic structures of targeted sequences by unlimited splitting, alignment and assembly of long PacBio reads. Application to the sequencing data…

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May 1, 2019

The genome of cultivated peanut provides insight into legume karyotypes, polyploid evolution and crop domestication.

High oil and protein content make tetraploid peanut a leading oil and food legume. Here we report a high-quality peanut genome sequence, comprising 2.54?Gb with 20 pseudomolecules and 83,709 protein-coding gene models. We characterize gene functional groups implicated in seed size evolution, seed oil content, disease resistance and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The peanut B subgenome has more genes and general expression dominance, temporally associated with long-terminal-repeat expansion in the A subgenome that also raises questions about the A-genome progenitor. The polyploid genome provided insights into the evolution of Arachis hypogaea and other legume chromosomes. Resequencing of 52 accessions suggests that…

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April 1, 2019

Persistence of Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Regulation of the Hag/MID Adhesin.

Persistence of bacterial pathogens in the airways has profound consequences on the course and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD continuously acquire and clear strains of Moraxella catarrhalis, a major pathogen in COPD. Some strains are cleared quickly and some persist for months to years. The mechanism of the variability in duration of persistence is unknown. Guided by genome sequences of selected strains, we studied the expression of Hag/MID, hag/mid gene sequences, adherence to human cells, and autoaggregation in longitudinally collected strains of M. catarrhalis from adults with COPD. Twenty-eight of 30 cleared strains of M.…

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April 1, 2019

Full-length transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals transcript variants involved in the innate immune system.

To better understand the immune system of shrimp, this study combined PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and Illumina paired-end short reads sequencing methods to discover full-length immune-related molecules of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 72,648 nonredundant full-length transcripts (unigenes) were generated with an average length of 2545 bp from five main tissues, including the hepatopancreas, cardiac stomach, heart, muscle, and pyloric stomach. These unigenes exhibited a high annotation rate (62,164, 85.57%) when compared against NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, Pfam, GO, KEGG and COG databases. A total of 7544 putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were detected and 1164 nonredundant…

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April 1, 2019

The conservation of polyol transporter proteins and their involvement in lichenized Ascomycota.

In lichen symbiosis, polyol transfer from green algae is important for acquiring the fungal carbon source. However, the existence of polyol transporter genes and their correlation with lichenization remain unclear. Here, we report candidate polyol transporter genes selected from the genome of the lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Ramalina conduplicans. A phylogenetic analysis using characterized polyol and monosaccharide transporter proteins and hypothetical polyol transporter proteins of R. conduplicans and various ascomycetous fungi suggested that the characterized yeast' polyol transporters form multiple clades with the polyol transporter-like proteins selected from the diverse ascomycetous taxa. Thus, polyol transporter genes are widely conserved among Ascomycota, regardless…

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April 1, 2019

Precise therapeutic gene correction by a simple nuclease-induced double-stranded break.

Current programmable nuclease-based methods (for example, CRISPR-Cas9) for the precise correction of a disease-causing genetic mutation harness the homology-directed repair pathway. However, this repair process requires the co-delivery of an exogenous DNA donor to recode the sequence and can be inefficient in many cell types. Here we show that disease-causing frameshift mutations that result from microduplications can be efficiently reverted to the wild-type sequence simply by generating a DNA double-stranded break near the centre of the duplication. We demonstrate this in patient-derived cell lines for two diseases: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G)1 and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS1)2. Clonal…

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April 1, 2019

Whole genomes and transcriptomes reveal adaptation and domestication of pistachio.

Pistachio (Pistacia vera), one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide, is highly adaptable to abiotic stresses and is tolerant to drought and salt stresses.Here, we provide a draft de novo genome of pistachio as well as large-scale genome resequencing. Comparative genomic analyses reveal stress adaptation of pistachio is likely attributable to the expanded cytochrome P450 and chitinase gene families. Particularly, a comparative transcriptomic analysis shows that the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in salt tolerance in pistachio. Moreover, we resequence 93 cultivars and 14 wild P. vera genomes and 35 closely related wild Pistacia…

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April 1, 2019

Reviving the Transcriptome Studies: An Insight into the Emergence of Single-molecule Transcriptome Sequencing

Advances in transcriptomics have provided an exceptional opportunity to study functional implications of the genetic variability. Technologies such as RNA-Seq have emerged as state-of-the-art techniques for transcriptome analysis that take advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. However, similar to their predecessors, these approaches continue to impose major challenges on full-length transcript structure identification, primarily due to inherent limitations of read length. With the development of single-molecule sequencing (SMS) from PacBio, a growing number of studies on the transcriptome of different organisms have been reported. SMS has emerged as advantageous for comprehensive genome annotation including identification of novel genes/isoforms, long non-coding RNAs…

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April 1, 2019

Resequencing the Genome of Malassezia restricta Strain KCTC 27527.

The draft genome sequence of Malassezia restricta KCTC 27527, a clinical isolate from a patient with dandruff, was previously reported. Using the PacBio Sequel platform, we completed and reannotated the genome of M. restricta KCTC 27527 for a better understanding of the genome of this fungus.Copyright © 2019 Cho et al.

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April 1, 2019

Full-length mRNA sequencing and gene expression profiling reveal broad involvement of natural antisense transcript gene pairs in pepper development and response to stresses.

Pepper is an important vegetable with great economic value and unique biological features. In the past few years, significant development has been made towards understanding the huge complex pepper genome; however, pepper functional genomics has not been well studied. To better understand the pepper gene structure and pepper gene regulation, we conducted full-length mRNA sequencing by PacBio sequencing and obtained 57862 high-quality full-length mRNA sequences derived from 18362 previously annotated and 5769 newly detected genes. New gene models were built that combined the full-length mRNA sequences and corrected approximately 500 fragmented gene models from previous annotations. Based on the full-length…

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April 1, 2019

Mitochondrial genome characterization of Melipona bicolor: Insights from the control region and gene expression data.

The stingless bee Melipona bicolor is the only bee in which true polygyny occurs. Its mitochondrial genome was first sequenced in 2008, but it was incomplete and no information about its transcription was known. We combined short and long reads of M. bicolor DNA with RNASeq data to obtain insights about mitochondrial evolution and gene expression in bees. The complete genome has 15,001?bp, including a control region of 255?bp that contains all conserved structures described in honeybees with the highest AT content reported so far for bees (98.1%), displaying a compact but functional region. Gene expression control is similar to…

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March 1, 2019

Antarctic blackfin icefish genome reveals adaptations to extreme environments.

Icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei; family Channichthyidae) are the only vertebrates that lack functional haemoglobin genes and red blood cells. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly and linkage map for the Antarctic blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus, highlighting evolved genomic features for its unique physiology. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that Antarctic fish of the teleost suborder Notothenioidei, including icefishes, diverged from the stickleback lineage about 77 million years ago and subsequently evolved cold-adapted phenotypes as the Southern Ocean cooled to sub-zero temperatures. Our results show that genes involved in protection from ice damage, including genes encoding antifreeze glycoprotein and zona pellucida proteins, are…

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March 1, 2019

Metatranscriptomic evidence for classical and RuBisCO-mediated CO2 reduction to methane facilitated by direct interspecies electron transfer in a methanogenic system.

In a staged anaerobic fluidized-bed ceramic membrane bioreactor, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were performed to decipher the microbial interactions on the granular activated carbon. Metagenome bins, representing the predominating microbes in the bioreactor: syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (SPOB), acetoclastic Methanothrix concilii, and exoelectrogenic Geobacter lovleyi, were successfully recovered for the reconstruction and analysis of metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of fatty acids to methane. In particular, SPOB degraded propionate into acetate, which was further converted into methane and CO2 by M. concilii via the acetoclastic methanogenesis. Concurrently, G. lovleyi oxidized acetate into CO2, releasing electrons into the extracellular environment. By…

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