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August 1, 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Actinosynnema pretiosum X47, An Industrial Strain that Produces the Antibiotic Ansamitocin AP-3.

Ansamitocins are extraordinarily potent antitumor agents. Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3), which is produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum, has been developed as a cytotoxic drug for breast cancer. Despite its importance, AP-3 is of limited applicability because of the low production yield. A. pretiosum strain X47 was developed from A. pretiosum ATCC 31565 by mutation breeding and shows a relatively high AP-3 yield. Here, we analyzed the A. pretiosum X47 genome, which is ~8.13 Mb in length with 6693 coding sequences, 58 tRNA genes, and 15 rRNA genes. The DNA sequence of the ansamitocin biosynthetic gene cluster is highly similar to that of the…

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July 1, 2019

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution.

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New long-read sequencing technologies can sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene, but higher error rates have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial communities of known composition, our method recovered the full complement of full-length 16S sequence variants from expected community members…

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July 1, 2019

Different knockout genotypes of OsIAA23 in rice using CRISPR/Cas9 generating different phenotypes.

We have isolated several Osiaa23 rice mutants with different knockout genotypes, resulting in different phenotypes, which suggested that different genetic backgrounds or mutation types influence gene function. The Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) gene family performs critical roles in auxin signal transduction in plants. In rice, the gene OsIAA23 (Os06t0597000) is known to affect development of roots and shoots, but previous knockouts in OsIAA23 have been sterile and difficult for research continuously. Here, we isolate new Osiaa23 mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in japonica (Wuyunjing24) and indica (Kasalath) rice, with extensive genome re-sequencing to confirm the absence of off-target effects. In Kasalath,…

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July 1, 2019

The Reference Genome Sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis Provides Insights into the Evolution of Wogonin Biosynthesis.

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is important in Chinese traditional medicine where preparations of dried roots, "Huang Qin," are used for liver and lung complaints and as complementary cancer treatments. We report a high-quality reference genome sequence for S. baicalensis where 93% of the 408.14-Mb genome has been assembled into nine pseudochromosomes with a super-N50 of 33.2 Mb. Comparison of this sequence with those of closely related species in the order Lamiales, Sesamum indicum and Salvia splendens, revealed that a specialized metabolic pathway for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyflavone bioactives evolved in the genus Scutellaria. We found that the gene encoding a specific…

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June 26, 2019

Application Brief: Long-read RNA sequencing – Best Practices

With Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Sequel Systems, you can easily and affordably sequence complete transcript isoforms in genes of interest or across the entire transcriptome. The Iso-Seq method allows users to generate full-length cDNA sequences up to 10 kb in length — with no assembly required — to confidently characterize full-length transcript isoforms.

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June 20, 2019

Comparison of sequencing approaches applied to complex soil metagenomes to resolve proteins of interest

Background: Long-read sequencing presents several potential advantages for providing more complete gene profiling of metagenomic samples. Long reads can capture multiple genes in a single read, and longer reads typically result in assemblies with better contiguity, especially for higher abundance organisms. However, a major challenge with using long reads has been the higher cost per base, which may lead to insufficient coverage of low-abundance species. Additionally, lower single-pass accuracy can make gene discovery for low-abundance organisms difficult. Methods: To evaluate the pros and cons of long reads for metagenomics, we directly compared PacBio and Illumina sequencing on a soil-derived sample,…

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June 3, 2019

Application Brochure: Explore metagenomes in high resolution

The ability to identify and understand the functions of the complex microbial populations living in, on, and around us requires comprehensive characterization of each community member. Highly accurate long reads– HiFi reads–with single-molecule resolution make Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing ideal for full-length 16S rRNA sequencing, long-read metagenomic profiling, and shotgun metagenomic assembly.

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June 1, 2019

Next generation sequencing characterizes HLA diversity in a registry population from the Netherlands.

Next generation DNA sequencing is used to determine the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, and -DQB1 assignments of 1009 unrelated volunteers for the unrelated donor registry in The Netherlands. The analysis characterizes all HLA exons and introns for class I alleles; at least exons 2 to 3 for HLA-DRB1; and exons 2 to 6 for HLA-DQB1. Of the distinct alleles present, there are 229 class I and 71 class II; 36 of these alleles are novel. The majority (approximately 98%) of the cumulative allele frequency at each locus is contributed by alleles that appear three or more times. Alleles encoding…

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June 1, 2019

Towards PacBio-based pan-eukaryote metabarcoding using full-length ITS sequences.

Development of high-throughput sequencing techniques have greatly benefited our understanding about microbial ecology; yet the methods producing short reads suffer from species-level resolution and uncertainty of identification. Here we optimize PacBio-based metabarcoding protocols covering the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region) and partial Small Subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene for species-level identification of all eukaryotes, with a specific focus on Fungi (including Glomeromycota) and Stramenopila (particularly Oomycota). Based on tests on composite soil samples and mock communities, we propose best suitable degenerate primers, ITS9munngs + ITS4ngsUni for eukaryotes and selected groups therein and discuss pros and cons of long read-based…

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June 1, 2019

High-coverage, long-read sequencing of Han Chinese trio reference samples.

Single-molecule long-read sequencing datasets were generated for a son-father-mother trio of Han Chinese descent that is part of the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) consortium portfolio. The dataset was generated using the Pacific Biosciences Sequel System. The son and each parent were sequenced to an average coverage of 60 and 30, respectively, with N50 subread lengths between 16 and 18?kb. Raw reads and reads aligned to both the GRCh37 and GRCh38 are available at the NCBI GIAB ftp site (ftp://ftp-trace.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/giab/ftp/data/ChineseTrio/). The GRCh38 aligned read data are archived in NCBI SRA (SRX4739017, SRX4739121, and SRX4739122). This dataset is available for anyone…

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June 1, 2019

Long-read based de novo assembly of low-complexity metagenome samples results in finished genomes and reveals insights into strain diversity and an active phage system.

Complete and contiguous genome assemblies greatly improve the quality of subsequent systems-wide functional profiling studies and the ability to gain novel biological insights. While a de novo genome assembly of an isolated bacterial strain is in most cases straightforward, more informative data about co-existing bacteria as well as synergistic and antagonistic effects can be obtained from a direct analysis of microbial communities. However, the complexity of metagenomic samples represents a major challenge. While third generation sequencing technologies have been suggested to enable finished metagenome-assembled genomes, to our knowledge, the complete genome assembly of all dominant strains in a microbiome sample…

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June 1, 2019

Genome sequence of Methylocystis hirsuta CSC1, a polyhydroxyalkanoate producing methanotroph.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics that can be produced by some methanotrophic organisms such as those of the genus Methylocystis. This allows the conversion of a detrimental greenhouse gas into an environmentally friendly high added-value bioproduct. This study presents the genome sequence of Methylocystis hirsuta CSC1 (a high yield PHB producer). The genome comprises 4,213,043 bp in 4 contigs, with the largest contig being 3,776,027 bp long. Two of the other contigs are likely to correspond to large size plasmids. A total of 4,664 coding sequences were annotated, revealing a PHA production cluster, two distinct particulate methane monooxygenases with active catalytic sites,…

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May 29, 2019

Case Study: Mining complex metagenomes for protein discovery with long-read sequencing

The bacteria living on and within us can impact health, disease, and even our behavior, but there is still much to learn about the breadth of their effects. The torrent of new discoveries unleashed by high-throughput sequencing has captured the imagination of scientists and the public alike. Scientists at Second Genome are hoping to apply these insights to improve human health, leveraging their bioinformatics expertise to mine bacterial communities for potential therapeutics. Recently they teamed up with scientists at PacBio to explore how long-read sequencing might supplement their short-read-based pipeline for gene discovery, using an environmental sample as a test…

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