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July 1, 2018

Synthetic biology, genome mining, and combinatorial biosynthesis of NRPS-derived antibiotics: a perspective.

Combinatorial biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites derived from nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) has been in slow development for about a quarter of a century. Progress has been hampered by the complexity of the giant multimodular multienzymes. More recently, advances have been made on understanding the chemical and structural biology of these complex megaenzymes, and on learning the design rules for engineering functional hybrid enzymes. In this perspective, I address what has been learned about successful engineering of complex lipopeptides related to daptomycin, and discuss how synthetic biology and microbial genome mining can converge to broaden the scope and enhance the…

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January 15, 2018

Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species.

The fungal genus ofAspergillusis highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverseAspergillusspecies (A. campestris,A. novofumigatus,A. ochraceoroseus, andA. steynii) have been whole-genome PacBio sequenced to provide genetic references in threeAspergillussections.A. taichungensisandA. candidusalso were sequenced for SM elucidation. ThirteenAspergillusgenomes were analyzed with comparative genomics to determine phylogeny and genetic diversity, showing that each presented genome contains 15-27% genes not found in other sequenced Aspergilli. In particular,A. novofumigatuswas compared with the pathogenic speciesA. fumigatusThis suggests thatA. novofumigatuscan produce most of…

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January 1, 2018

Condition-dependent co-regulation of genomic clusters of virulence factors in the grapevine trunk pathogen Neofusicoccum parvum.

The ascomycete Neofusicoccum parvum, one of the causal agents of Botryosphaeria dieback, is a destructive wood-infecting fungus and a serious threat to grape production worldwide. The capability to colonize woody tissue, combined with the secretion of phytotoxic compounds, is thought to underlie its pathogenicity and virulence. Here, we describe the repertoire of virulence factors and their transcriptional dynamics as the fungus feeds on different substrates and colonizes the woody stem. We assembled and annotated a highly contiguous genome using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing. Transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing determined the genome-wide patterns of expression of virulence factors both in vitro…

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December 1, 2017

Draft genome sequence of the halophilic Halobacillus mangrovi KTB 131 isolated from Topan salt of the Jeon-nam in Korea.

The draft genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Halobacillus mangrovi KTB 131, isolated from Topan salt of the Jeon-nam in Korea, was established. The genome comprises 4,151,649 bp, with a G + C content of 41.6%. The strain displays a high number of genes responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism compared to other Halobacillus bacterial genus members. Numerous genes responsible for various transport systems, solute accumulation, and aromatic/sulfur decomposition were detected. The first genomic analysis encourages further research on comparative genomics and potential biotechnological applications. The whole draft genome sequence of Halobacillus mangrovi KTB 131 is now available (Bioproject PRJNA380285).

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November 25, 2017

Chromosome level assembly and secondary metabolite potential of the parasitic fungus Cordyceps militaris.

Cordyceps militaris is an insect pathogenic fungus that is prized for its use in traditional medicine. This and other entomopathogenic fungi are understudied sources for the discovery of new bioactive molecules. In this study, PacBio SMRT long read sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of C. militaris with a focus on the genetic potential for secondary metabolite production in the genome assembly of this fungus.This is first chromosome level assembly of a species in the Cordyceps genera. In this seven chromosome assembly of 33.6 Mba there were 9371 genes identified. Cordyceps militaris was determined to have the MAT…

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November 1, 2017

Comparative genomics of maize ear rot pathogens reveals expansion of carbohydrate-active enzymes and secondary metabolism backbone genes in Stenocarpella maydis.

Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S. maydis. Analyses of predicted genes…

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November 1, 2017

The complete genome sequence of Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047, the producer of novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids.

Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047 produces novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids with cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. albolongus YIM 101047, which consists of an 8,027,788bp linear chromosome. Forty-six putative biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites were found. The sesquiterpenoid gene cluster was on the left arm (0.09-0.10Mb), and the bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was on the right arm (7.46-7.64Mb) of the chromosome. Twenty-two putative gene clusters with high or moderate similarity to important antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters were found, including the antitumor agents bafilomycin, epothilone and hedamycin; the antibacterial/antifungal agents clavulanic acid, collismycin…

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October 26, 2017

Whole-genome sequence of the fruiting myxobacterium Cystobacter fuscus DSM 52655.

Among myxobacteria, the genus Cystobacter is known not only for fruiting body formation but also for formation of secondary metabolites, such as cystobactamids and cystothiazols. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the Cystobacter fuscus strain DSM 52655, which comprises 12,349,744 bp and 9,836 putative protein-coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Treuner-Lange et al.

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October 10, 2017

Hydroxy-pentanones production by Bacillus sp. H15-1 and its complete genome sequence

Acyloins are useful organic compounds with reactive adjacent hydroxyl group and carbonyl group. Current research is usually constrained to acetoin (i.e. 3-hydroxy-2-butanone) and the biological production of other acyloins was scarcely reported. In this study, two hydroxy-pentanone metabolites (3-hydroxy-2-pentanone and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone) of Bacillus sp. H15-1 were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and authentic standards. Then the complete genome of this strain was sequenced and de novo assembled to a single circular chromosome of 4,162,101 bp with a guanine-cytosine content of 46.3%, but no special genes were found for the biosynthesis of the hydroxy-pentanones. Since hydroxy-pentanones are the homologues of acetoin,…

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September 10, 2017

First complete genome sequence of Bacillus glycinifermentans B-27.

The first complete genome sequence of Bacillus glycinifermentans B-27 was determined by SMRT sequencing generating a genome sequence with a total length of 4,607,442 bases. Based on this sequence 4738 protein-coding sequences were predicted and used to identify gene clusters that are related to the production of secondary metabolites such as Lichenysin, Bacillibactin and Bacitracin. This genomic potential combined with the ability of B. glycinifermentans B-27 to grown in bile containing media might contribute to a future application of this strain as probiotic in productive livestock potentially inhibiting competing and pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier…

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August 31, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis GQJK49, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antifungal activity.

Bacillus velezensis GQJK49 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antifungal activity, which was isolated from Lycium barbarum L. rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis GQJK49. Twelve gene clusters related to its biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including antifungal and antibacterial antibiotics, were predicted. Copyright © 2017 Ma et al.

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August 29, 2017

Gapless genome assembly of Colletotrichum higginsianum reveals chromosome structure and association of transposable elements with secondary metabolite gene clusters.

The ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum causes anthracnose disease of brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous versions of the genome sequence were highly fragmented, causing errors in the prediction of protein-coding genes and preventing the analysis of repetitive sequences and genome architecture. Here, we re-sequenced the genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and, in combination with optical map data, this provided a gapless assembly of all twelve chromosomes except for the ribosomal DNA repeat cluster on chromosome 7. The more accurate gene annotation made possible by this new assembly revealed a large repertoire of secondary metabolism (SM)…

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August 22, 2017

Comparative genomic and regulatory analyses of natamycin production of Streptomyces lydicus A02.

Streptomyces lydicus A02 is used by industry because it has a higher natamycin-producing capacity than the reference strain S. natalensis ATCC 27448. We sequenced the complete genome of A02 using next-generation sequencing platforms, and to achieve better sequence coverage and genome assembly, we utilized single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The assembled genome comprises a 9,307,519-bp linear chromosome with a GC content of 70.67%, and contained 8,888 predicted genes. Comparative genomics and natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) analysis showed that BGC are highly conserved among evolutionarily diverse strains, and they also shared closer genome evolution compared with other Streptomyces species. Forty gene…

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July 27, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942.

Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942 has the potential to synthesize a plethora of metabolites which are of clinical and agricultural significance in response to environmental triggers. The complete genomic sequence of Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942 is reported herein, contributing to the knowledge base of strains in the Vibrio genus. Copyright © 2017 Gummadidala et al.

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July 25, 2017

Complete genome sequence of the sand-sediment actinobacterium Nocardioides dokdonensis FR1436(T).

Nocardioides dokdonensis, belonging to the class Actinobacteria, was first isolated from sand sediment of a beach in Dokdo, Korea, in 2005. In this study, we determined the genome sequence of FR1436, the type strain of N. dokdonensis, and analyzed its gene contents. The genome sequence is the second complete one in the genus Nocardioides after that of Nocardioides sp. JS614. It is composed of a 4,376,707-bp chromosome with a G + C content of 72.26%. From the genome sequence, 4,104 CDSs, three rRNA operons, 51 tRNAs, and one tmRNA were predicted, and 71.38% of the genes were assigned putative functions. Through the…

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