July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative analysis of Ralstonia solanacearum methylomes.

Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil-borne plant pathogen with broad geographical distribution and the ability to cause wilt disease in many agriculturally important crops. Genome sequencing of multiple R. solanacearum strains has identified both unique and shared genetic traits influencing their evolution and ability to colonize plant hosts. Previous research has shown that DNA methylation can drive speciation and modulate virulence in bacteria, but the impact of epigenetic modifications on the diversification and pathogenesis of R. solanacearum is unknown. Sequencing of R. solanacearum strains GMI1000 and UY031 using Single Molecule Real-Time technology allowed us to perform a comparative analysis of R. solanacearum methylomes. Our analysis identified a novel methylation motif associated with a DNA methylase that is conserved in all complete Ralstonia spp. genomes and across the Burkholderiaceae, as well as a methylation motif associated to a phage-borne methylase unique to R. solanacearum UY031. Comparative analysis of the conserved methylation motif revealed that it is most prevalent in gene promoter regions, where it displays a high degree of conservation detectable through phylogenetic footprinting. Analysis of hyper- and hypo-methylated loci identified several genes involved in global and virulence regulatory functions whose expression may be modulated by DNA methylation. Analysis of genome-wide modification patterns identified a significant correlation between DNA modification and transposase genes in R. solanacearum UY031, driven by the presence of a high copy number of ISrso3 insertion sequences in this genome and pointing to a novel mechanism for regulation of transposition. These results set a firm foundation for experimental investigations into the role of DNA methylation in R. solanacearum evolution and its adaptation to different plants.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomesequencing of Ralstonia solanacearum CQPS-1, a phylotype I strain collected from a highland area with continuous cropping of tobacco.

Ralstonia solanacearum, an agent of bacterial wilt, is a highly variable species with a broad host range and wide geographic distribution. As a species complex, it has extensive genetic diversity and its living environment is polymorphic like the lowland and the highland area, so more genomes are needed for studying population evolution and environment adaptation. In this paper, we reported the genome sequencing of R. solanacearum strain CQPS-1 isolated from wilted tobacco in Pengshui, Chongqing, China, a highland area with severely acidified soil and continuous cropping of tobacco more than 20 years. The comparative genomic analysis among different R. solanacearum strains was also performed. The completed genome size of CQPS-1 was 5.89 Mb and contained the chromosome (3.83 Mb) and the megaplasmid (2.06 Mb). A total of 5229 coding sequences were predicted (the chromosome and megaplasmid encoded 3573 and 1656 genes, respectively). A comparative analysis with eight strains from four phylotypes showed that there was some variation among the species, e.g., a large set of specific genes in CQPS-1. Type III secretion system gene cluster (hrp gene cluster) was conserved in CQPS-1 compared with the reference strain GMI1000. In addition, most genes coding core type III effectors were also conserved with GMI1000, but significant gene variation was found in the gene ripAA: the identity compared with strain GMI1000 was 75% and the hrpII box promoter in the upstream had significantly mutated. This study provided a potential resource for further understanding of the relationship between variation of pathogenicity factors and adaptation to the host environment.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of the plant pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum type strain K60 and R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551.

Ralstonia solanacearum is a globally distributed plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt diseases of many crop hosts, threatening both sustenance farming and industrial agriculture. Here, we present closed genome sequences for the R. solanacearum type strain, K60, and the cool-tolerant potato brown rot strain R. solanacearum UW551, a highly regulated U.S. select agent pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Hayes et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum FJAT-91, a high-virulence pathogen of tomato wilt.

Ralstonia solanacearum FJAT-91, which displays higher virulence toward plants belonging to the family Solanaceae, was isolated from a wilted tomato plant vessel in Fujian province, southeast China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of R. solanacearum FJAT-91 using long-read single-molecule PacBio sequencing technology. The genome comprises a 3,873,214-bp circular chromosome and a 2,000,873-bp circular megaplasmid with an overall G+C content of 66.85%. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Protein O-linked glycosylation in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most lethal phytopathogens in the world. Due to its broad host range, it can cause wilting disease in many plant species of economic interest. In this work, we identified the O-oligosaccharyltransferase (O-OTase) responsible for protein O-glycosylation in R. solanacearum. An analysis of the glycoproteome revealed that 20 proteins, including type IV pilins are substrates of this general glycosylation system. Although multiple glycan forms were identified, the majority of the glycopeptides were modified with a pentasaccharide composed of HexNAc-(Pen)-dHex3, similar to the O antigen subunit present in the lipopolysaccharide of multiple R. solanacearum strains. Disruption of the O-OTase led to the total loss of protein glycosylation, together with a defect in biofilm formation and reduced pathogenicity towards tomato plants. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the loss of glycosylation is not associated with widespread proteome changes. Only the levels of a single glycoprotein, the type IV pilin, were diminished in the absence of glycosylation. In parallel, disruption of glycosylation triggered an increase in the levels of a surface lectin homologous to Pseudomonas PA-IIL. These results reveal the important role of glycosylation in the pathogenesis of R. solanacearum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the potato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum UY031.

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt of potato. Ralstonia solanacearum strain UY031 belongs to the American phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, also classified as race 3 biovar 2. Here we report the completely sequenced genome of this strain, the first complete genome for phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, and the fourth for the R. solanacearum species complex. In addition to standard genome annotation, we have carried out a curated annotation of type III effector genes, an important pathogenicity-related class of genes for this organism. We identified 60 effector genes, and observed that this effector repertoire is distinct when compared to those from other phylotype IIB strains. Eleven of the effectors appear to be nonfunctional due to disruptive mutations. We also report a methylome analysis of this genome, the first for a R. solanacearum strain. This analysis helped us note the presence of a toxin gene within a region of probable phage origin, raising the hypothesis that this gene may play a role in this strain’s virulence.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa type strain ATCC 49129 and strain FC1138, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce-processing plant.

Ralstonia insidiosa is an opportunistic pathogen and a strong biofilm producer. Here, we present the complete genome sequences of R. insidiosa FC1138 and ATCC 49129. Both strains have two circular chromosomes of approximately 3.9 and 1.9 Mb and a 50-kb plasmid. ATCC 49129 also possesses a megaplasmid of approximately 318 kb. Copyright © 2016 Xu et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic analysis of phylotype I strain EP1 reveals substantial divergence from other strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating group of phytopathogens with an unusually wide host range and broad geographical distribution. R. solanacearum isolates may differ considerably in various properties including host range and pathogenicity, but the underlying genetic bases remain vague. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing of strain EP1 isolated from Guangdong Province of China, which belongs to phylotype I and is highly virulent to a range of solanaceous crops. Its complete genome contains a 3.95-Mb chromosome and a 2.05-Mb mega-plasmid, which is considerably bigger than reported genomes of other R. solanacearum strains. Both the chromosome and the mega-plasmid have essential house-keeping genes and many virulence genes. Comparative analysis of strain EP1 with other 3 phylotype I and 3 phylotype II, III, IV strains unveiled substantial genome rearrangements, insertions and deletions. Genome sequences are relatively conserved among the 4 phylotype I strains, but more divergent among strains of different phylotypes. Moreover, the strains exhibited considerable variations in their key virulence genes, including those encoding secretion systems and type III effectors. Our results provide valuable information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of diversified virulences and host range of R. solanacearum species.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the sesame pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum strain SEPPX 05.

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne phytopathogen associated with bacterial wilt disease of sesame. R. solanacearum is the predominant agent causing damping-off from tropical to temperate regions. Because bacterial wilt has decreased the sesame industry yield, we sequenced the SEPPX05 genome using PacBio and Illumina HiSeq 2500 systems and revealed that R. solanacearum strain SEPPX05 carries a bipartite genome consisting of a 3,930,849 bp chromosome and a 2,066,085 bp megaplasmid with 66.84% G+C content that harbors 5,427 coding sequences. Based on the whole genome, phylogenetic analysis showed that strain SEPPX05 is grouped with two phylotype I strains (EP1 and GMI1000). Pan-genomic analysis shows that R. solanacearum is a complex species with high biological diversity and was able to colonize various environments during evolution. Despite deletions, insertions, and inversions, most genes of strain SEPPX05 have relatively high levels of synteny compared with strain GMI1000. We identified 104 genes involved in virulence-related factors in the SEPPX05 genome and eight absent genes encoding T3Es of GMI1000. Comparing SEPPX05 with other species, we found highly conserved secretion systems central to modulating interactions of host bacteria. These data may provide important clues for understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of R. solanacearum and help in the control of sesame bacterial wilt.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence and annotation of the phytopathogenic Ralstonia pickettii (previously Burkholderia glumae) strain ICMP-8657.

Strain ICMP-8657 was formerly taxonomically classified as Burkholderia glumae and reported to be the producer of an antibacterial pyrazole derivative. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ICMP-8657, which failed to demonstrate the biosynthetic capacity to produce the stated antibacterial compound, leading to its taxonomic reclassification as Ralstonia pickettii ICMP-8657. Copyright © 2018 Paterson and Gross.


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