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July 1, 2019

Sequencing of Cultivated Peanut, Arachis hypogaea, Yields Insights into Genome Evolution and Oil Improvement.

Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid crop planted in Asia, Africa, and America for edible oil and protein. To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy, we sequenced the allotetraploid A. hypogaea genome and compared it with the related diploid Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis genomes. We annotated 39 888 A-subgenome genes and 41 526 B-subgenome genes in allotetraploid peanut. The A. hypogaea subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with the B subgenome resembling the ancestral state and the A subgenome undergoing more gene disruption, loss, conversion, and transposable element proliferation, and having reduced gene expression during seed development despite lacking genome-wide expression dominance.…

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April 1, 2019

Genome-wide selection footprints and deleterious variations in young Asian allotetraploid rapeseed.

Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38) is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide. However, little is known about the population evolution of this species, the genomic difference between its major genetic groups, such as European and Asian rapeseed, and the impacts of historical large-scale introgression events on this young tetraploid. In this study, we reported the de novo assembly of the genome sequences of an Asian rapeseed (B. napus), Ningyou 7, and its four progenitors and compared these genomes with other available genomic data from diverse European and Asian cultivars. Our results showed that Asian rapeseed originally derived from European rapeseed but subsequently…

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April 1, 2019

A hybrid de novo genome assembly of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, with chromosome-length scaffolds.

The ability to generate long sequencing reads and access long-range linkage information is revolutionizing the quality and completeness of genome assemblies. Here we use a hybrid approach that combines data from four genome sequencing and mapping technologies to generate a new genome assembly of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We first generated contigs based on PacBio sequencing libraries, which were then merged with linked-read 10x Chromium data followed by scaffolding using a BioNano optical genome map and a Hi-C chromatin interaction map, complemented by a genetic linkage map.Each of the assembly steps reduced the number of gaps and incorporated a substantial…

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February 1, 2019

Genome assembly and gene expression in the American black bear provides new insights into the renal response to hibernation.

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising worldwide and 10-15% of the global population currently suffers from CKD and its complications. Given the increasing prevalence of CKD there is an urgent need to find novel treatment options. The American black bear (Ursus americanus) copes with months of lowered kidney function and metabolism during hibernation without the devastating effects on metabolism and other consequences observed in humans. In a biomimetic approach to better understand kidney adaptations and physiology in hibernating black bears, we established a high-quality genome assembly. Subsequent RNA-Seq analysis of kidneys comparing gene expression profiles in black…

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February 1, 2019

Genome sequence and genetic transformation of a widely distributed and cultivated poplar.

Populus alba is widely distributed and cultivated in Europe and Asia. This species has been used for diverse studies. In this study, we assembled a de novo genome sequence of P. alba var. pyramidalis (= P. bolleana) and confirmed its high transformation efficiency and short transformation time by experiments. Through a process of hybrid genome assembly, a total of 464 M of the genome was assembled. Annotation analyses predicted 37 901 protein-coding genes. This genome is highly collinear to that of P. trichocarpa, with most genes having orthologs in the two species. We found a marked expansion of gene families related to histone and the…

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January 1, 2019

The genome of the jellyfish Aurelia and the evolution of animal complexity.

We present the genome of the moon jellyfish Aurelia, a genome from a cnidarian with a medusa life stage. Our analyses suggest that gene gain and loss in Aurelia is comparable to what has been found in its morphologically simpler relatives-the anthozoan corals and sea anemones. RNA sequencing analysis does not support the hypothesis that taxonomically restricted (orphan) genes play an oversized role in the development of the medusa stage. Instead, genes broadly conserved across animals and eukaryotes play comparable roles throughout the life cycle. All life stages of Aurelia are significantly enriched in the expression of genes that are…

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January 1, 2019

Liriodendron genome sheds light on angiosperm phylogeny and species-pair differentiation.

The genus Liriodendron belongs to the family Magnoliaceae, which resides within the magnoliids, an early diverging lineage of the Mesangiospermae. However, the phylogenetic relationship of magnoliids with eudicots and monocots has not been conclusively resolved and thus remains to be determined1-6. Liriodendron is a relict lineage from the Tertiary with two distinct species-one East Asian (L. chinense (Hemsley) Sargent) and one eastern North American (L. tulipifera Linn)-identified as a vicariad species pair. However, the genetic divergence and evolutionary trajectories of these species remain to be elucidated at the whole-genome level7. Here, we report the first de novo genome assembly of…

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January 1, 2019

Experimental validation of in silico predicted RAD locus frequencies using genomic resources and short read data from a model marine mammal.

Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) has revolutionized the study of wild organisms by allowing cost-effective genotyping of thousands of loci. However, for species lacking reference genomes, it can be challenging to select the restriction enzyme that offers the best balance between the number of obtained RAD loci and depth of coverage, which is crucial for a successful outcome. To address this issue, PredRAD was recently developed, which uses probabilistic models to predict restriction site frequencies from a transcriptome assembly or other sequence resource based on either GC content or mono-, di- or trinucleotide composition. This program generates predictions that are…

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November 1, 2018

Genomic discovery of the hypsin gene and biosynthetic pathways for terpenoids in Hypsizygus marmoreus.

Hypsizygus marmoreus (Beech mushroom) is a popular ingredient in Asian cuisine. The medicinal effects of its bioactive compounds such as hypsin and hypsiziprenol have been reported, but the genetic basis or biosynthesis of these components is unknown.In this study, we sequenced a reference strain of H. marmoreus (Haemi 51,987-8). We evaluated various assembly strategies, and as a result the Allpaths and PBJelly produced the best assembly. The resulting genome was 42.7 Mbp in length and annotated with 16,627 gene models. A putative gene (Hypma_04324) encoding the antifungal and antiproliferative hypsin protein with 75% sequence identity with the previously known N-terminal…

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November 1, 2018

Improved reference genome for the domestic horse increases assembly contiguity and composition.

Recent advances in genomic sequencing technology and computational assembly methods have allowed scientists to improve reference genome assemblies in terms of contiguity and composition. EquCab2, a reference genome for the domestic horse, was released in 2007. Although of equal or better quality compared to other first-generation Sanger assemblies, it had many of the shortcomings common to them. In 2014, the equine genomics research community began a project to improve the reference sequence for the horse, building upon the solid foundation of EquCab2 and incorporating new short-read data, long-read data, and proximity ligation data. Here, we present EquCab3. The count of…

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October 1, 2018

Firefly genomes illuminate parallel origins of bioluminescence in beetles.

Fireflies and their luminous courtships have inspired centuries of scientific study. Today firefly luciferase is widely used in biotechnology, but the evolutionary origin of bioluminescence within beetles remains unclear. To shed light on this long-standing question, we sequenced the genomes of two firefly species that diverged over 100 million-years-ago: the North American Photinus pyralis and Japanese Aquatica lateralis. To compare bioluminescent origins, we also sequenced the genome of a related click beetle, the Caribbean Ignelater luminosus, with bioluminescent biochemistry near-identical to fireflies, but anatomically unique light organs, suggesting the intriguing hypothesis of parallel gains of bioluminescence. Our analyses support independent…

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October 1, 2018

Draft genome sequence and transcriptional analysis of Rosellinia necatrix infected with a virulent mycovirus.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis is useful in developing effective control methods for fungal diseases. The white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix is a soilborne pathogen that causes serious economic losses in various crops, including fruit trees, worldwide. Here, using next-generation sequencing techniques, we first produced a 44-Mb draft genome sequence of R. necatrix strain W97, an isolate from Japan, in which 12,444 protein-coding genes were predicted. To survey differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the pathogenesis of the fungus, the hypovirulent W97 strain infected with Rosellinia necatrix megabirnavirus 1 (RnMBV1) was used for a comprehensive transcriptome analysis. In…

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September 13, 2018

The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) genome and transcriptome assembly.

Arctic charr have a circumpolar distribution, persevere under extreme environmental conditions, and reach ages unknown to most other salmonids. The Salvelinus genus is primarily composed of species with genomes that are structured more like the ancestral salmonid genome than most Oncorhynchus and Salmo species of sister genera. It is thought that this aspect of the genome may be important for local adaptation (due to increased recombination) and anadromy (the migration of fish from saltwater to freshwater). In this study, we describe the generation of a new genetic map, the sequencing and assembly of the Arctic charr genome (GenBank accession: GCF_002910315.2)…

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September 1, 2018

Repeated inversions within a pannier intron drive diversification of intraspecific colour patterns of ladybird beetles.

How genetic information is modified to generate phenotypic variation within a species is one of the central questions in evolutionary biology. Here we focus on the striking intraspecific diversity of >200 aposematic elytral (forewing) colour patterns of the multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which is regulated by a tightly linked genetic locus h. Our loss-of-function analyses, genetic association studies, de novo genome assemblies, and gene expression data reveal that the GATA transcription factor gene pannier is the major regulatory gene located at the h locus, and suggest that repeated inversions and cis-regulatory modifications at pannier led to the expansion…

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September 1, 2018

Draft genome sequence of wild Prunus yedoensis reveals massive inter-specific hybridization between sympatric flowering cherries.

Hybridization is an important evolutionary process that results in increased plant diversity. Flowering Prunus includes popular cherry species that are appreciated worldwide for their flowers. The ornamental characteristics were acquired both naturally and through artificially hybridizing species with heterozygous genomes. Therefore, the genome of hybrid flowering Prunus presents important challenges both in plant genomics and evolutionary biology.We use long reads to sequence and analyze the highly heterozygous genome of wild Prunus yedoensis. The genome assembly covers >?93% of the gene space; annotation identified 41,294 protein-coding genes. Comparative analysis of the genome with 16 accessions of six related taxa shows that…

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