Isoform sequencing: Unveiling the complex landscape of the eukaryotic transcriptome on the PacBio RS II.
Alternative splicing of RNA is an important mechanism that increases protein diversity and is pervasive in the most complex biological functions. While advances in RNA sequencing methods have accelerated our understanding of the transcriptome, isoform discovery remains computationally challenging due to short read lengths. Here, we describe the Isoform Sequencing (Iso-Seq) method using long reads generated by the PacBio RS II. We sequenced rat heart and lung RNA using the Clontech® SMARTer® cDNA preparation kit followed by size selection using agarose gel. Additionally, we tested the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science for efficiently extracting longer transcripts = 3 kb. Post-sequencing, we developed a novel isoform-level clustering algorithm to generate high-quality transcript consensus sequences. We show that our method recovered alternative splice forms as well as alternative stop sites, antisense transcription, and retained introns. To conclude, the Iso-Seq method provides a new opportunity for researchers to study the complex eukaryotic transcriptome even in the absence of reference genomes or annotated transcripts.