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August 1, 2019

Complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas atlantica ECSMB14104, a Gammaproteobacterium inducing mussel settlement

Pseudoalteromonas is widely distributed in the marine environments and the biofilms formed by Pseudoalteromonas promote settlement of many species of invertebrates. Here, we show the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas atlantica ECSMB14104, which was isolated from biofilms formed in the East China Sea and exhibited inducing activity on the Mytilus coruscus settlement. Complete genome of this strain containsa total of 3325 genes and the GC content of 41.02%. This genomic information is contributed to molecular mechanism of P. atlantica ECSMB14104 regulating mussel settlement.

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August 1, 2019

Genome Analysis of Carbaryl-Degrading Strain Pseudomonas putida XWY-1.

Carbaryl was a widely used pesticide in the agriculture industry. The toxicity against non-target organisms and the environmental pollution it caused became the focus of public concern. However, the microbial mechanism of carbaryl degradation was not fully investigated. In the study, we reported the complete genome of the carbaryl-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain XWY-1, which consists of a chromosome (5.9 Mbp) and a plasmid (0.4 Mbp). The carbaryl degradation genes are located on the plasmid. The study on the genome will facilitate to further elucidate the carbaryl degradation and advance the potential biotechnological applications of P. putida strain XWY-1.

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August 1, 2019

Comparative genome analysis provides novel insight into the interaction of Aquimarina sp. AD1, BL5 and AD10 with their macroalgal host.

The Aquimarina genus is widely distributed throughout the marine environment, however little is understood regarding its ecological role, particularly when in association with eukaryotic hosts. Here, we examine the genomes of two opportunistic pathogens, Aquimarina sp. AD1 and BL5, and a non-pathogenic strain Aquimarina sp. AD10, that were isolated from diseased individuals of the red alga Delisea pulchra. Each strain encodes multiple genes for the degradation of marine carbohydrates and vitamin biosynthesis. These traits are hypothesised to promote nutrient exchange between the Aquimarina strains and their algal host, facilitating a close symbiotic relationship. Moreover, each strain harbours the necessary genes…

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July 1, 2019

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution.

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New long-read sequencing technologies can sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene, but higher error rates have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial communities of known composition, our method recovered the full complement of full-length 16S sequence variants from expected community members…

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July 1, 2019

Agricultural intensification reduces microbial network complexity and the abundance of keystone taxa in roots.

Root-associated microbes play a key role in plant performance and productivity, making them important players in agroecosystems. So far, very few studies have assessed the impact of different farming systems on the root microbiota and it is still unclear whether agricultural intensification influences the structure and complexity of microbial communities. We investigated the impact of conventional, no-till, and organic farming on wheat root fungal communities using PacBio SMRT sequencing on samples collected from 60 farmlands in Switzerland. Organic farming harbored a much more complex fungal network with significantly higher connectivity than conventional and no-till farming systems. The abundance of keystone…

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July 1, 2019

Full-length 16S rRNA gene classification of Atlantic salmon bacteria and effects of using different 16S variable regions on community structure analysis.

Understanding fish-microbial relationships may be of great value for fish producers as fish growth, development and welfare are influenced by the microbial community associated with the rearing systems and fish surfaces. Accurate methods to generate and analyze these microbial communities would be an important tool to help improve understanding of microbial effects in the industry. In this study, we performed taxonomic classification and determination of operational taxonomic units on Atlantic salmon microbiota by taking advantage of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Skin mucus was dominated by the genera Flavobacterium and Psychrobacter. Intestinal samples were dominated by the genera Carnobacterium, Aeromonas,…

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July 1, 2019

Next-generation HLA typing of 382 International Histocompatibility Working Group reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines: Report from the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop.

Extended molecular characterization of HLA genes in the IHWG reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) was one of the major goals for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW). Although reference B-LCLs have been examined extensively in previous workshops complete high-resolution typing was not completed for all the classical class I and class II HLA genes. To address this, we conducted a single-blind study where select panels of B-LCL genomic DNA samples were distributed to multiple laboratories for HLA genotyping by next-generation sequencing methods. Identical cell panels comprised of 24 and 346 samples were distributed and typed by at least…

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July 1, 2019

Emergence of a ST2570 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate carrying mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-14 recovered from a bloodstream infection in China.

The worldwide emergence of the plasmid-borne colistin resistance mediated by mcr-1 gene not only extended our knowledge on colistin resistance, but also poses a serious threat to clinical and public health [1, 2]. Since its first discovery, mcr-1-carrying Enterobacteriaceae from human, animal, food, and environmental origins have been widely identified, but few mcr-1-positive clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been reported so far, especially when associated with community-acquired infections [3, 4]. Here, we report the emergence of a colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate, which belonged to a rare sporadic clone, co-carrying mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-14 genes simultaneous recovered from a community-acquired bloodstream…

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July 1, 2019

Divergent selection following speciation in two ectoparasitic honey bee mites

Multispecies host-parasite evolution is common, but how parasites evolve after speciating remains poorly understood. Shared evolutionary history and physiology may propel species along similar evolutionary trajectories whereas pursuing different strategies can reduce competition. We test these scenarios in the economically important association between honey bees and ectoparasitic mites by sequencing the genomes of the sister mite species Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni. These genomes were closely related, with 99.7% sequence identity. Among the 9,628 orthologous genes, 4.8% showed signs of positive selection in at least one species. Divergent selective trajectories were discovered in conserved chemosensory gene families (IGR, SNMP), and…

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July 1, 2019

Agricultural Origins of a Highly Persistent Lineage of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in New Zealand.

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are human and animal gut commensals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important opportunistic pathogens with limited treatment options. Historically, the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and avoparcin selected for the emergence of vancomycin resistance in human and animal isolates, respectively, resulting in global cessation of avoparcin use between 1997 and 2000. To better understand human- and animal-associated VRE strains in the postavoparcin era, we sequenced the genomes of 231 VRE isolates from New Zealand (NZ; 75 human clinical, 156 poultry) cultured between 1998 and 2009. E. faecium lineages and their antibiotic resistance carriage patterns strictly delineated between agricultural…

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June 1, 2019

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont ("Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens") uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. "Ca E. kahalalidefaciens" has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a…

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June 1, 2019

Construction of JRG (Japanese reference genome) with single-molecule real-time sequencing

In recent genome analyses, population-specific reference panels have indicated important. However, reference panels based on short-read sequencing data do not sufficiently cover long insertions. Therefore, the nature of long insertions has not been well documented. Here, we assembled a Japanese genome using single-molecule real-time sequencing data and characterized insertions found in the assembled genome. We identified 3691 insertions ranging from 100?bps to ~10,000?bps in the assembled genome relative to the international reference sequence (GRCh38). To validate and characterize these insertions, we mapped short-reads from 1070 Japanese individuals and 728 individuals from eight other populations to insertions integrated into GRCh38. With…

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June 1, 2019

De novo assembly of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) genome and the evolution of genes after whole-genome duplication.

For over a thousand years, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus) was raised throughout Asia for food and as an ornamental pet. As a very close relative of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish share the recent genome duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago in their common ancestor. The combination of centuries of breeding and a wide array of interesting body morphologies provides an exciting opportunity to link genotype to phenotype and to understand the dynamics of genome evolution and speciation. We generated a high-quality draft sequence and gene annotations of a "Wakin" goldfish using 71X PacBio long reads.…

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June 1, 2019

Characteristics of crude oil-degrading bacteria Gordonia iterans isolated from marine coastal in Taean sediment.

Crude oil is a major pollutant of marine and coastal ecosystems, and it causes environmental problems more seriously. It is believed ultimate and complete degradation is accomplished mainly by microorganisms. In this study, we aim to search out for bacterial strains with high ability in degrading crude oil. From sediments contaminated by the petroleum spilled in 2007, an accident in Taean, South Korea, we isolated thirty-one bacterial strains in total with potential application in crude oil contamination remediation. In terms of removal percentage after 7 days, one of the strains, Co17, showed the highest removal efficiency with 84.2% of crude oil…

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