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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Application of circular consensus sequencing and network analysis to characterize the bovine IgG repertoire.

Vertebrate immune systems generate diverse repertoires of antibodies capable of mediating response to a variety of antigens. Next generation sequencing methods provide unique approaches to a number of immuno-based research areas including antibody discovery and engineering, disease surveillance, and host immune response to vaccines. In particular, single-molecule circular consensus sequencing permits the sequencing of antibody repertoires at previously unattainable depths of coverage and accuracy. We approached the bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) repertoire with the objective of characterizing diversity of expressed IgG transcripts. Here we present single-molecule real-time sequencing data of expressed IgG heavy-chain repertoires of four individual cattle. We describe…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Fungal ITS1 deep-sequencing strategies to reconstruct the composition of a 26-species community and evaluation of the gut mycobiota of healthy Japanese individuals.

The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed. This database can be utilized for the taxonomic assignment of fungal community members. We evaluated the efficacy of strategies for mycobiome analysis by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next generation sequencing data of a defined microbial mock community.

Generating sequence data of a defined community composed of organisms with complete reference genomes is indispensable for the benchmarking of new genome sequence analysis methods, including assembly and binning tools. Moreover the validation of new sequencing library protocols and platforms to assess critical components such as sequencing errors and biases relies on such datasets. We here report the next generation metagenomic sequence data of a defined mock community (Mock Bacteria ARchaea Community; MBARC-26), composed of 23 bacterial and 3 archaeal strains with finished genomes. These strains span 10 phyla and 14 classes, a range of GC contents, genome sizes, repeat…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single-cell mRNA isoform diversity in the mouse brain.

Alternative mRNA isoform usage is an important source of protein diversity in mammalian cells. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in bulk tissues, however, it remains unclear how this diversity is reflected in single cells.Here we use long-read sequencing technology combined with unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) to reveal patterns of alternative full-length isoform expression in single cells from the mouse brain. We found a surprising amount of isoform diversity, even after applying a conservative definition of what constitutes an isoform. Genes tend to have one or a few isoforms highly expressed and a larger number of isoforms expressed at a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Clonal distribution of BCR-ABL1 mutations and splice isoforms by single-molecule long-read RNA sequencing.

The evolution of mutations in the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene transcript renders CML patients resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) based therapy. Thus screening for BCR-ABL1 mutations is recommended particularly in patients experiencing poor response to treatment. Herein we describe a novel approach for the detection and surveillance of BCR-ABL1 mutations in CML patients.To detect mutations in the BCR-ABL1 transcript we developed an assay based on the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequencing technology, which allows for single-molecule long-read sequencing of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript molecules. Samples from six patients with poor response to therapy were analyzed both at diagnosis and follow-up. cDNA was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Major histocompatibility complex haplotyping and long-amplicon allele discovery in cynomolgus macaques from Chinese breeding facilities.

Very little is currently known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis; Mafa) from Chinese breeding centers. We performed comprehensive MHC class I haplotype analysis of 100 cynomolgus macaques from two different centers, with animals from different reported original geographic origins (Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Cambodian/Indonesian mixed-origin). Many of the samples were of known relation to each other (sire, dam, and progeny sets), making it possible to characterize lineage-level haplotypes in these animals. We identified 52 Mafa-A and 74 Mafa-B haplotypes in this cohort, many of which were restricted to specific sample origins. We also characterized…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Microsatellites from Fosterella christophii (Bromeliaceae) by de novo transcriptome sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences RS platform.

Microsatellite markers were developed in Fosterella christophii (Bromeliaceae) to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure within the F. micrantha group, comprising F. christophii, F. micrantha, and F. villosula.Full-length cDNAs were isolated from F. christophii and sequenced on a Pacific Biosciences RS platform. A total of 1590 high-quality consensus isoforms were assembled into 971 unigenes containing 421 perfect microsatellites. Thirty primer sets were designed, of which 13 revealed a high level of polymorphism in three populations of F. christophii, with four to nine alleles per locus. Each of these 13 loci cross-amplified in the closely related species F. micrantha and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Quantitative metaproteomics highlight the metabolic contributions of uncultured phylotypes in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

In this study, we used multiple meta-omic approaches to characterize the microbial community and the active metabolic pathways of a stable industrial biogas reactor with food waste as the dominant feedstock, operating at thermophilic temperatures (60°C) and elevated levels of free ammonia (367 mg/liter NH3-N). The microbial community was strongly dominated (76% of all 16S rRNA amplicon sequences) by populations closely related to the proteolytic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus. Multiple Coprothermobacter-affiliated strains were detected, introducing an additional level of complexity seldom explored in biogas studies. Genome reconstructions provided metabolic insight into the microbes that performed biomass deconstruction and fermentation, including the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enigmatic Diphyllatea eukaryotes: culturing and targeted PacBio RS amplicon sequencing reveals a higher order taxonomic diversity and global distribution.

The class Diphyllatea belongs to a group of enigmatic unicellular eukaryotes that play a key role in reconstructing the morphological innovation and diversification of early eukaryotic evolution. Despite its evolutionary significance, very little is known about the phylogeny and species diversity of Diphyllatea. Only three species have described morphology, being taxonomically divided by flagella number, two or four, and cell size. Currently, one 18S rRNA Diphyllatea sequence is available, with environmental sequencing surveys reporting only a single partial sequence from a Diphyllatea-like organism. Accordingly, geographical distribution of Diphyllatea based on molecular data is limited, despite morphological data suggesting the class…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Improving eukaryotic genome annotation using single molecule mRNA sequencing.

The advantages of Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology include long reads, low systematic bias, and high consensus read accuracy. Here we use these attributes to improve on the genome annotation of the parasitic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum using PacBio RNA-Seq.We sequenced 192,888 circular consensus sequences (CCS) derived from cDNAs generated using the CloneTech SMARTer system. These SMARTer-SMRT libraries were normalized and size-selected providing a robust population of expressed structural genes for subsequent genome annotation. We demonstrate PacBio mRNA sequences based genome annotation improvement, compared to genome annotation using conventional sequencing-by-synthesis alone, by identifying 1609 (9.2%) new genes, extended the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

LSCplus: a fast solution for improving long read accuracy by short read alignment.

The single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing technology of Pacific Biosciences enables the acquisition of transcripts from end to end due to its ability to produce extraordinarily long reads (>10 kb). This new method of transcriptome sequencing has been applied to several projects on humans and model organisms. However, the raw data from SMRT sequencing are of relatively low quality, with a random error rate of approximately 15 %, for which error correction using next-generation sequencing (NGS) short reads is typically necessary. Few tools have been designed that apply a hybrid sequencing approach that combines NGS and SMRT data, and the most…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Construction of a draft reference transcripts of onion (Allium cepa) using long-read sequencing

To obtain intact and full-length RNA transcripts of onion (Allium cepa), long-read sequencing technology was first applied. Total RNAs extracted from four tissues; flowers, leaves, bulbs and roots, of red–purple and yellow-colored onions (A. cepa) were sequenced using long-read sequencing (RSII platform, P4-C2 chemistry). The 99,247 polished high-quality isoforms were produced by sequence correction processes of consensus calling, quality filtering, orientation verification, misread-nucleotide correction and dot-matrix view. The dot-matrix view was subsequently used to remove artificial inverted repeats (IRs), and resultantly 421 IRs were removed. The remaining 98,826 isoforms were condensed to 35,505 through the removal process of redundant isoforms.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the dynamic transcriptome of a herpesvirus with long-read Single Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

Herpesvirus gene expression is co-ordinately regulated and sequentially ordered during productive infection. The viral genes can be classified into three distinct kinetic groups: immediate-early, early, and late classes. In this study, a massively parallel sequencing technique that is based on PacBio Single Molecule Real-time sequencing platform, was used for quantifying the poly(A) fraction of the lytic transcriptome of pseudorabies virus (PRV) throughout a 12-hour interval of productive infection on PK-15 cells. Other approaches, including microarray, real-time RT-PCR and Illumina sequencing are capable of detecting only the aggregate transcriptional activity of particular genomic regions, but not individual herpesvirus transcripts. However, SMRT…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing of “Faecalibaculum rodentium” ALO17, isolated from C57BL/6J laboratory mouse feces.

Intestinal microorganisms affect host physiology, including ageing. Given the difficulty in controlling for human studies of the gut microbiome, mouse models provide an alternative avenue to study such relationships. In this study, we report on the complete genome of “Faecalibaculum rodentium” ALO17, a bacterium that was isolated from the faeces of a 9-month-old female C57BL/6J mouse. This strain will be utilized in future in vivo studies detailing the relationships between the gut microbiome and ageing.The whole genome sequence of “F. rodentium” ALO17 was obtained using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) technique on a PacBio instrument. The assembled genome consisted of 2,542,486 base…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling.

Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures…

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