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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Harnessing long-read amplicon sequencing to uncover NRPS and Type I PKS gene sequence diversity in polar desert soils.

The severity of environmental conditions at Earth’s frigid zones present attractive opportunities for microbial biomining due to their heightened potential as reservoirs for novel secondary metabolites. Arid soil microbiomes within the Antarctic and Arctic circles are remarkably rich in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, bacterial phyla known to be prolific producers of natural products. Yet the diversity of secondary metabolite genes within these cold, extreme environments remain largely unknown. Here, we employed amplicon sequencing using PacBio RS II, a third generation long-read platform, to survey over 200 soils spanning twelve east Antarctic and high Arctic sites for natural product-encoding genes, specifically targeting…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence Analysis and Characterization of Selected Iron Regulation Genes of Pasteurella Multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1.

Although more than 100 genome sequences of Pasteurella multocida are available, comprehensive and complete genome sequence analysis is limited. This study describes the analysis of complete genome sequence and pathogenomics of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The genome of PMTB2.1 has 2176 genes with more than 40 coding sequences associated with iron regulation and 140 virulence genes including the complete tad locus. The tad locus includes several previously uncharacterized genes such as flp2, rcpC and tadV genes. A transposable phage resembling to Mu phages was identified in P. multocida that has not been identified in any other serotype yet. The multi-locus…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Evolution of a clade of Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 1, lineage 1 via acquisition of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistance genes and dispersion of ISAba1.

Resistance to carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics is a critical problem in Acinetobacter baumannii, particularly when genes conferring resistance are acquired by multiply or extensively resistant members of successful globally distributed clonal complexes, such as global clone 1 (GC1) . Here, we investigate the evolution of an expanding clade of lineage 1 of the GC1 complex via repeated acquisition of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistance genes. Lineage 1 arose in the late 1970s and the Tn6168/OCL3 clade arose in the late 1990s from an ancestor that had already acquired resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Between 2000 and 2002, two distinct subclades have…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis NCM 61, with High Potential for Biofilm Formation, Isolated from Meat-Related Sources.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain NMC 61 of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, which was previously isolated from conveyor belts during chicken slaughter and has the potential to form biofilms on several surfaces. The genome is predicted to contain 110 noncoding small RNAs on the chromosome.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-range PCR and high-throughput sequencing of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 indicate high genetic diversity and complex evolution process.

Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is an important pathogen associated with mass mortalities of cultivated marine mollusks worldwide. Since no cell line allows OsHV-1 replication in vitro, it is difficult to isolate enough high-purity viral DNA for High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS). We developed an efficient approach for the enrichment of OsHV-1 DNA for HTS with long-range PCR. Twenty-three primer pairs were designed to cover 99.3% of the reference genome, and their performances were examined on ten OsHV-1 infected samples. Amplicon mixtures from six successfully amplified samples were sequenced with Illumina platform, and one of them (ZK0118) was also sequenced with the PacBio…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length mRNA sequencing in Saccharina japonica and identification of carbonic anhydrase genes

The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes that play an important role in the absorption and transportation of CO2 in Saccharina japonica. They are encoded by a superfamily of genes with seven subtypes that are unrelated in sequence but share conserved function in catalyzing the reversible conversion of CO2 and HCO3-. Here we have characterized the CA members in the transcriptome of S. japonica using Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Approximately 9830.4 megabases from 5,028,003 quality subreads were generated, and they were assembled into 326,512 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads, with an average flnc read length of 2181 bp.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Potential of TLR-gene diversity in Czech indigenous cattle for resistance breeding as revealed by hybrid sequencing

A production herd of Czech Simmental cattle (Czech Red Pied, CRP), the conserved subpopulation of this breed, and the ancient local breed Czech Red cattle (CR) were screened for diversity in the antibacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are members of the innate immune system. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 from pooled DNA samples were sequenced with PacBio technology, with 3–5×?coverage per gene per animal. To increase the reliability of variant detection, the gDNA pools were sequenced in parallel with the Illumina X-ten platform at low coverage (60× per gene). The diversity in conserved…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

PacBio full-length cDNA sequencing integrated with RNA-seq reads drastically improves the discovery of splicing transcripts in rice.

In eukaryotes, alternative splicing (AS) greatly expands the diversity of transcripts. However, it is challenging to accurately determine full-length splicing isoforms. Recently, more studies have taken advantage of Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) long-read sequencing to identify full-length transcripts. Nevertheless, the high error rate of PacBio reads seriously offsets the advantages of long reads, especially for accurately identifying splicing junctions. To best capitalize on the features of long reads, we used Illumina RNA-seq reads to improve PacBio circular consensus sequence (CCS) quality and to validate splicing patterns in the rice transcriptome. We evaluated the impact of CCS accuracy on the number and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Construction of full-length Japanese reference panel of class I HLA genes with single-molecule, real-time sequencing.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a gene complex known for its exceptional diversity across populations, importance in organ and blood stem cell transplantation, and associations of specific alleles with various diseases. We constructed a Japanese reference panel of class I HLA genes (ToMMo HLA panel), comprising a distinct set of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-H alleles, by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing of 208 individuals included in the 1070 whole-genome Japanese reference panel (1KJPN). For high-quality allele reconstruction, we developed a novel pipeline, Primer-Separation Assembly and Refinement Pipeline (PSARP), in which the SMRT sequencing and additional short-read data were used. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Social genes are selection hotspots in kin groups of a soil microbe.

The composition of cooperative systems, including animal societies, organismal bodies, and microbial groups, reflects their past and shapes their future evolution. However, genomic diversity within many multiunit systems remains uncharacterized, limiting our ability to understand and compare their evolutionary character. We have analyzed genomic and social-phenotype variation among 120 natural isolates of the cooperative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus derived from six multicellular fruiting bodies. Each fruiting body was composed of multiple lineages radiating from a unique recent ancestor. Genomic evolution was concentrated in selection hotspots associated with evolutionary change in social phenotypes. Synonymous mutations indicated that kin lineages within the same…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Photobacterium damselae Subsp. damselae Strain SSPD1601 Isolated from Deep-Sea Cage-Cultured Sebastes schlegelii with Septic Skin Ulcer.

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PDD) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic organisms and humans. Based on an epidemiological investigation conducted over the past 3 years, PDD is one of the most important pathogens causing septic skin ulcer in deep-sea cage-cultured Sebastes schlegelii in the Huang-Bohai Sea area and present throughout the year with high abundance. To further understand the pathogenicity of this species, the pathogenic properties and genome of PDD strain SSPD1601 were analyzed. The results revealed that PDD strain SSPD1601 is a rod-shaped cell with a single polar flagellum, and the clinical symptoms were…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A draft genome assembly of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia chlorotica.

Elysia chlorotica, a sacoglossan sea slug found off the East Coast of the United States, is well-known for its ability to sequester chloroplasts from its algal prey and survive by photosynthesis for up to 12 months in the absence of food supply. Here we present a draft genome assembly of E. chlorotica that was generated using a hybrid assembly strategy with Illumina short reads and PacBio long reads. The genome assembly comprised 9,989 scaffolds, with a total length of 557?Mb and a scaffold N50 of 442?kb. BUSCO assessment indicated that 93.3% of the expected metazoan genes were completely present in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus sakei supports the development of starter strain combinations.

Strains of Lactobacillus sakei can be isolated from a variety of sources including meat, fermented sausages, sake, sourdough, sauerkraut or kimchi. Selected strains are widely used as starter cultures for sausage fermentation. Recently we have demonstrated that control about the lactic microbiota in fermenting sausages is achieved rather by pairs or strain sets than by single strains. In this work we characterized the pan genome of L. sakei to enable exploitation of the genomic diversity of L. sakei for the establishment of assertive starter strain sets. We have established the full genome sequences of nine L. sakei strains from different…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Urinary tract colonization is enhanced by a plasmid that regulates uropathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii chromosomal genes.

Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii poses a growing threat to global health. Research on Acinetobacter pathogenesis has primarily focused on pneumonia and bloodstream infections, even though one in five A. baumannii strains are isolated from urinary sites. In this study, we highlight the role of A. baumannii as a uropathogen. We develop the first A. baumannii catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) murine model using UPAB1, a recent MDR urinary isolate. UPAB1 carries the plasmid pAB5, a member of the family of large conjugative plasmids that represses the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in multiple Acinetobacter strains. pAB5 confers niche specificity,…

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