July 7, 2019  |  

Origins of the current seventh cholera pandemic.

Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain. We used high-resolution comparative genomic analysis of strains collected from 1930 to 1964, covering the evolution from the first available El Tor biotype strain to the start of the seventh pandemic. We define six stages leading to the pandemic strain and reveal all key events. The seventh pandemic originated from a nonpathogenic strain in the Middle East, first observed in 1897. It subsequently underwent explosive diversification, including the spawning of the pandemic lineage. This rapid diversification suggests that, when first observed, the strain had only recently arrived in the Middle East, possibly from the Asian homeland of cholera. The lineage migrated to Makassar, Indonesia, where it gained the important virulence-associated elements Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I), VSP-II, and El Tor type cholera toxin prophage by 1954, and it then became pandemic in 1961 after only 12 additional mutations. Our data indicate that specific niches in the Middle East and Makassar were important in generating the pandemic strain by providing gene sources and the driving forces for genetic events.


July 7, 2019  |  

Phylogeny of dermatophytes with genomic character evaluation of clinically distinct Trichophyton rubrum and T. áviolaceum

Trichophyton rubrum and T. violaceum are prevalent agents of human dermatophyte infections, the former being found on glabrous skin and nail, while the latter is confined to the scalp. The two species are phenotypically different but are highly similar phylogenetically. The taxonomy of dermatophytes is currently being reconsidered on the basis of molecular phylogeny. Molecular species definitions do not always coincide with existing concepts which are guided by ecological and clinical principles. In this article, we aim to bring phylogenetic and ecological data together in an attempt to develop new species concepts for anthropophilic dermatophytes. Focus is on the T. rubrum complex with analysis of rDNA ITS supplemented with LSU, TUB2, TEF3 and ribosomal protein L10 gene sequences. In order to explore genomic differences between T. rubrum and T. violaceum, one representative for both species was whole genome sequenced. Draft sequences were compared with currently available dermatophyte genomes. Potential virulence factors of adhesins and secreted proteases were predicted and compared phylogenetically. General phylogeny showed clear gaps between geophilic species of Arthroderma, but multilocus distances between species were often very small in the derived anthropophilic and zoophilic genus Trichophyton. Significant genome conservation between T. rubrum and T. violaceum was observed, with a high similarity at the nucleic acid level of 99.38 % identity. Trichophyton violaceum contains more paralogs than T. rubrum. About 30 adhesion genes were predicted among dermatophytes. Seventeen adhesins were common between T. rubrum and T. violaceum, while four were specific for the former and eight for the latter. Phylogenetic analysis of secreted proteases reveals considerable expansion and conservation among the analyzed species. Multilocus phylogeny and genome comparison of T. rubrum and T. violaceum underlined their close affinity. The possibility that they represent a single species exhibiting different phenotypes due to different localizations on the human body is discussed.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence resources for the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) and the barley stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei)

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei causes stripe rust on barley. Several P. striiformis f. sp. tritici genomes are available, but no P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genome is available. More genomes of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolate 93-210 and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei isolate 93TX-2, using PacBio and Illumina technologies and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to contigs with high continuity and showed significant structural differences. The circular mitochondria genomes of both were complete. These genomes provide high-quality resources for deciphering the genomic basis of rapid evolution and host adaptation, identifying genes for avirulence and other important traits, and studying host-pathogen interactions.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete and assembled genome sequence of an NDM-5- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 617 isolated from wastewater in Switzerland.

Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli have emerged worldwide and represent a major challenge to effective healthcare management. Here we report the genome sequence of an NDM-5- and CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonging to sequence type 617 isolated from wastewater treatment plant effluent in Switzerland.Whole-genome sequencing of E. coli 657SK2 was performed using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology RS2 reads (C4/P6 chemistry). De novo assembly was carried out using Canu 1.6, and sequences were annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP).The genome of E. coli 657SK2 consists of a 4.9-Mbp chromosome containing blaCTX-M-15, genes associated with virulence [fyuA, hlyE, the pyelonephritis-associated pili (pap) gene cluster and the yad gene cluster], the copper resistance gene pco, and genes associated with resistance to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants (emrA, mdfA and sugE). A 173.9-kb multidrug resistance IncFII-FIA-FIB plasmid was detected harbouring aadA2, aadA5, blaNDM-5, blaOXA-1, cat, drfA, drfA17, the mph(A)-mrx-mphR cluster, the tetA-tetC-tetR cluster, and the virulence genes iutA and ylpA.The genome sequence of E. coli 657SK2 provides information on resistance mechanisms and virulence characteristics of pathogenic E. coli harbouring blaNDM-5 and blaCTX-M-15 that are spreading into the environment via urban wastewater.Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis Y2, an efficient ectoine-producer isolated from pulp mill wastewater.

Halophilic microorganisms have great potentials towards biotechnological applications. Halomonas hydrothermalis Y2 is a halotolerant and alkaliphilic strain that isolated from the Na+-rich pulp mill wastewater. The strain is dominant in the bacterial community of pulp mill wastewater and exhibits metabolic diversity in utilizing various substrates. Here we present the genome sequence of this strain, which comprises a circular chromosome 3,933,432 bp in size and a GC content of 60.2%. Diverse genes that encoding proteins for compatible solutes synthesis and transport were identified from the genome. With a complete pathway for ectoine synthesis, the strain could produce ectoine from monosodium glutamate and further partially secreted into the medium. In addition, around 20% ectoine was increased by deleting the ectoine hydroxylase (EctD). The genome sequence we report here will provide genetic information regarding adaptive mechanisms of strain Y2 to its harsh habitat, as well as facilitate exploration of metabolic strategies for diverse compatible solutes, e.g., ectoine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome analysis of Vallitalea guaymasensis strain L81 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system.

Abyssivirga alkaniphila strain L81T, recently isolated from a black smoker biofilm at the Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field, was previously described as a mesophilic, obligately anaerobic heterotroph able to ferment carbohydrates, peptides, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The strain was classified as a new genus within the family Lachnospiraceae. Herein, its genome is analyzed and A. alkaniphila is reassigned to the genus Vallitalea as a new strain of V. guaymasensis, designated V. guaymasensis strain L81. The 6.4 Mbp genome contained 5651 protein encoding genes, whereof 4043 were given a functional prediction. Pathways for fermentation of mono-saccharides, di-saccharides, peptides, and amino acids were identified whereas a complete pathway for the fermentation of n-alkanes was not found. Growth on carbohydrates and proteinous compounds supported methane production in co-cultures with Methanoplanus limicola. Multiple confurcating hydrogen-producing hydrogenases, a putative bifurcating electron-transferring flavoprotein—butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex, and a Rnf-complex form a basis for the observed hydrogen-production and a putative reverse electron-transport in V. guaymasensis strain L81. Combined with the observation that n-alkanes did not support growth in co-cultures with M. limicola, it seemed more plausible that the previously observed degradation patterns of crude-oil in strain L81 are explained by unspecific activation and may represent a detoxification mechanism, representing an interesting ecological function. Genes encoding a capacity for polyketide synthesis, prophages, and resistance to antibiotics shows interactions with the co-occurring microorganisms. This study enlightens the function of the fermentative microorganisms from hydrothermal vents systems and adds valuable information on the bioprospecting potential emerging in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of WM99c, an antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 (GC2) strain representing an Australian GC2 lineage.

The extensively antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate WM99c recovered in Sydney, Australia, in 1999 is an early representative of a distinct lineage of global clone 2 (GC2) seen on the east coast of Australia. We present the complete 4.121-Mbp genome sequence (chromosome plus 2 plasmids), generated via long-read sequencing (PacBio).


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