Arthropod Mycoplasma are little known endosymbionts in insects, primarily known as plant disease vectors. Mycoplasma in other arthropods such as arachnids are unknown. We report the first complete Mycoplasma genome sequenced, identified, and annotated from a scorpion, Centruroides vittatus, and designate it as Mycoplasma vittatus We find the genome is at least a 683,827 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 42.7% and with 987 protein-coding genes. The putative virulence determinants include 11 genes associated with the virulence operon associated with protein synthesis or DNA transcription and ten genes with antibiotic and toxic compound resistance. Comparative analysis revealed that the M. vittatus genome is smaller than other Mycoplasma genomes and exhibits a higher GC content. Phylogenetic analysis shows M. vittatus as part of the Hominis group of Mycoplasma As arthropod genomes accumulate, further novel Mycoplasma genomes may be identified and characterized. Copyright © 2019 Yamashita et al.
The genome of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) reveals complex patterns of duplications involved in the evolution of parasitism genes.
Heterodera glycines, commonly referred to as the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is an obligatory and sedentary plant parasite that causes over a billion-dollar yield loss to soybean production annually. Although there are genetic determinants that render soybean plants resistant to certain nematode genotypes, resistant soybean cultivars are increasingly ineffective because their multi-year usage has selected for virulent H. glycines populations. The parasitic success of H. glycines relies on the comprehensive re-engineering of an infection site into a syncytium, as well as the long-term suppression of host defense to ensure syncytial viability. At the forefront of these complex molecular interactions are effectors, the proteins secreted by H. glycines into host root tissues. The mechanisms of effector acquisition, diversification, and selection need to be understood before effective control strategies can be developed, but the lack of an annotated genome has been a major roadblock.Here, we use PacBio long-read technology to assemble a H. glycines genome of 738 contigs into 123?Mb with annotations for 29,769 genes. The genome contains significant numbers of repeats (34%), tandem duplicates (18.7?Mb), and horizontal gene transfer events (151 genes). A large number of putative effectors (431 genes) were identified in the genome, many of which were found in transposons.This advance provides a glimpse into the host and parasite interplay by revealing a diversity of mechanisms that give rise to virulence genes in the soybean cyst nematode, including: tandem duplications containing over a fifth of the total gene count, virulence genes hitchhiking in transposons, and 107 horizontal gene transfers not reported in other plant parasitic nematodes thus far. Through extensive characterization of the H. glycines genome, we provide new insights into H. glycines biology and shed light onto the mystery underlying complex host-parasite interactions. This genome sequence is an important prerequisite to enable work towards generating new resistance or control measures against H. glycines.
Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP3, a lactic acid bacterium found in the Drosophila melanogaster gut
Enterococcus durans Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP3 was isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome is composed of a single circular genome of 2,983,334 bp, with a G+C content of 38%, and a single plasmid of 5,594 bp. Copyright © 2017 Wan et al.
Pyrenophora teres f.teres, the causal agent of net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley, is a destructive pathogen in barley-growing regions throughout the world. Typical yield losses due to NFNB range from 10 to 40%; however, complete loss has been observed on highly susceptible barley lines where environmental conditions favor the pathogen. Currently, genomic resources for this economically important pathogen are limited to a fragmented draft genome assembly and annotation, with limited RNA support of theP. teresf.teresisolate 0-1. This research presents an updated 0-1 reference assembly facilitated by long-read sequencing and scaffolding with the assistance of genetic linkage maps. Additionally, genome annotation was mediated by RNAseq analysis using three infection time points and a pure culture sample, resulting in 11,541 high-confidence gene models. The 0-1 genome assembly and annotation presented here now contains the majority of the repetitive content of the genome. Analysis of the 0-1 genome revealed classic characteristics of a “two-speed” genome, being compartmentalized into GC-equilibrated and AT-rich compartments. The assembly of repetitive AT-rich regions will be important for future investigation of genes known as effectors, which often reside in close proximity to repetitive regions. These effectors are responsible for manipulation of the host defense during infection. This updatedP. teresf.teresisolate 0-1 reference genome assembly and annotation provides a robust resource for the examination of the barley-P. teresf.tereshost-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2018 Wyatt et al.
High-quality draft genome sequence of actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, producer of type II polyketide azicemicins, using Illumina and PacBio Technologies.
Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, producer of the type II polyketide azicemicins, obtained using Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. The 11.75-Mbp genome contains >11,000 genes and 22 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. Copyright © 2015 Ogasawara et al.
Presented here is the first completely assembled genome sequence of Kocuria palustris, an actinobacterial species with broad ecological distribution. The single, circular chromosome of K. palustris MU14/1 comprises 2,854,447 bp, has a G+C content of 70.5%, and contains a deduced gene set of 2,521 coding sequences. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt and Foecking.
Viruses are major pathogens in all biological systems. Virus propagation and downstream analysis remains a challenge, particularly in the ocean where the majority of their microbial hosts remain recalcitrant to current culturing techniques. We used a cultivation-independent approach to isolate and sequence individual viruses. The protocol uses high-speed fluorescence-activated virus sorting flow cytometry, multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and downstream genomic sequencing. We focused on ‘giant viruses’ that are readily distinguishable by flow cytometry. From a single-milliliter sample of seawater collected from off the dock at Boothbay Harbor, ME, USA, we sorted almost 700 single virus particles, and subsequently focused on a detailed genome analysis of 12. A wide diversity of viruses was identified that included Iridoviridae, extended Mimiviridae and even a taxonomically novel (unresolved) giant virus. We discovered a viral metacaspase homolog in one of our sorted virus particles and discussed its implications in rewiring host metabolism to enhance infection. In addition, we demonstrated that viral metacaspases are widespread in the ocean. We also discovered a virus that contains both a reverse transcriptase and a transposase; although highly speculative, we suggest such a genetic complement would potentially allow this virus to exploit a latency propagation mechanism. Application of single virus genomics provides a powerful opportunity to circumvent cultivation of viruses, moving directly to genomic investigation of naturally occurring viruses, with the assurance that the sequence data is virus-specific, non-chimeric and contains no cellular contamination.
Complete genome sequence of Acetobacter pomorum Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP5, an acetic acid bacterium found in the Drosophila melanogaster gut.
Acetobacter pomorum Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP5 was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome is composed of a single chromosomal circle of 2,848,089 bp, with a G+C content of 53% and three plasmids of 131,455 bp, 19,216 bp, and 9,160 bp. Copyright © 2017 Wan et al.
Complete genome and plasmid sequences for Rhodococcus fascians D188 and draft sequences for Rhodococcus isolates PBTS 1 and PBTS 2.
Rhodococcus fascians, a phytopathogen that alters plant development, inflicts significant losses in plant production around the world. We report here the complete genome sequence of R. fascians D188, a well-characterized model isolate, and Rhodococcus species PBTS (pistachio bushy top syndrome) 1 and 2, which were shown to be responsible for a disease outbreak in pistachios. Copyright © 2016 Stamler et al.