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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Generating amplicon reads for microbial community assessment with next-generation sequencing.

Marker gene amplicon sequencing is often preferred over whole genome sequencing for microbial community characterization, due to its lower cost while still enabling assessment of uncultivable organisms. This technique involves many experimental steps, each of which can be a source of errors and bias. We present an up-to-date overview of the whole experimental pipeline, from sampling to sequencing reads, and give information allowing for informed choices at each step of both planning and execution of a microbial community assessment study. When applicable, we also suggest ways of avoiding inherent pitfalls in amplicon sequencing. © 2019 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long metabarcoding of the eukaryotic rDNA operon to phylogenetically and taxonomically resolve environmental diversity

High-throughput environmental DNA metabarcoding has revolutionized the analysis of microbial diversity, but this approach is generally restricted to amplicon sizes below 500 base pairs. These short regions contain limited phylogenetic signal, which makes it impractical to use environmental DNA in full phylogenetic inferences. However, new long-read sequencing technologies such as the Pacific Biosciences platform may provide sufficiently large sequence lengths to overcome the poor phylogenetic resolution of short amplicons. To test this idea, we amplified soil DNA and used PacBio Circular Consensus Sequencing (CCS) to obtain a ~4500 bp region of the eukaryotic rDNA operon spanning most of the small…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

metaFlye: scalable long-read metagenome assembly using repeat graphs

Long-read sequencing technologies substantially improved assemblies of many isolate bacterial genomes as compared to fragmented assemblies produced with short-read technologies. However, assembling complex metagenomic datasets remains a challenge even for the state-of-the-art long-read assemblers. To address this gap, we present the metaFlye assembler and demonstrate that it generates highly contiguous and accurate metagenome assemblies. In contrast to short-read metagenomics assemblers that typically fail to reconstruct full-length 16S RNA genes, metaFlye captures many 16S RNA genes within long contigs, thus providing new opportunities for analyzing the microbial “dark matter of life”. We also demonstrate that long-read metagenome assemblers significantly improve full-length…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Insights into the bacterial species and communities of a full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment plant by using third-generation sequencing.

For the first time, full-length 16S rRNA sequencing method was applied to disclose the bacterial species and communities of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant using an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A/A/O) process in Wuhan, China. The compositions of the bacteria at phylum and class levels in the activated sludge were similar to which revealed by Illumina Miseq sequencing. At genus and species levels, third-generation sequencing showed great merits and accuracy. Typical functional taxa classified to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), denitrifying bacteria (DB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (ANAMMOXB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were presented, which were Nitrosomonas (1.11%), Nitrospira (3.56%), Pseudomonas (3.88%),…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Towards PacBio-based pan-eukaryote metabarcoding using full-length ITS sequences.

Development of high-throughput sequencing techniques have greatly benefited our understanding about microbial ecology; yet the methods producing short reads suffer from species-level resolution and uncertainty of identification. Here we optimize PacBio-based metabarcoding protocols covering the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region) and partial Small Subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene for species-level identification of all eukaryotes, with a specific focus on Fungi (including Glomeromycota) and Stramenopila (particularly Oomycota). Based on tests on composite soil samples and mock communities, we propose best suitable degenerate primers, ITS9munngs + ITS4ngsUni for eukaryotes and selected groups therein and discuss pros and cons of long read-based…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Microbial diversity in the tick Argas japonicus (Acari: Argasidae) with a focus on Rickettsia pathogens.

The soft tick Argas japonicus mainly infests birds and can cause human dermatitis; however, no pathogen has been identified from this tick species in China. In the present study, the microbiota in A. japonicus collected from an epidemic community was explored, and some putative Rickettsia pathogens were further characterized. The results obtained indicated that bacteria in A. japonicus were mainly ascribed to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the male A. japonicus harboured more diverse bacteria than the females and nymphs. The bacteria Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Rickettsia and Staphylococcus were common in nymphs and adults. The abundance…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Enrichment of oral microbiota in early cystic precursors to invasive pancreatic cancer.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cysts that can progress to invasive pancreatic cancer. Associations between oncogenesis and oral microbiome alterations have been reported. This study aims to investigate a potential intracystic pancreatic microbiome in a pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN) surgery patient cohort.Paired cyst fluid and plasma were collected at pancreatic surgery from patients with suspected PCN (n=105). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial DNA by qPCR, PacBio sequencing (n=35), and interleukin (IL)-1ß quantification was performed. The data were correlated to diagnosis, lesion severity and clinical and laboratory profile, including proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) usage and history of invasive endoscopy…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Relative Performance of MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) versus Sequel (Pacific Biosciences) Third-Generation Sequencing Instruments in Identification of Agricultural and Forest Fungal Pathogens.

Culture-based molecular identification methods have revolutionized detection of pathogens, yet these methods are slow and may yield inconclusive results from environmental materials. The second-generation sequencing tools have much-improved precision and sensitivity of detection, but these analyses are costly and may take several days to months. Of the third-generation sequencing techniques, the portable MinION device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) has received much attention because of its small size and possibility of rapid analysis at reasonable cost. Here, we compare the relative performances of two third-generation sequencing instruments, MinION and Sequel (Pacific Biosciences), in identification and diagnostics of fungal and oomycete pathogens from…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification of Initial Colonizing Bacteria in Dental Plaques from Young Adults Using Full-Length 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

Development of dental plaque begins with the adhesion of salivary bacteria to the acquired pellicle covering the tooth surface. In this study, we collected in vivo dental plaque formed on hydroxyapatite disks for 6 h from 74 young adults and identified initial colonizing taxa based on full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. A long-read, single-molecule sequencer, PacBio Sequel, provided 100,109 high-quality full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence reads from the early plaque microbiota, which were assigned to 90 oral bacterial taxa. The microbiota obtained from every individual mostly comprised the 21 predominant taxa with the maximum relative abundance of over 10% (95.8?±?6.2%,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-Length Multi-Barcoding: DNA Barcoding from Single Ingredient to Complex Mixtures.

DNA barcoding has been used for decades, although it has mostly been applied to somesingle-species. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is mainly used in the form ofcombination-one type of the multi-species, identification is crucial for clinical usage.Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) has been used to address this authentication issue for the pastfew years, but conventional NGS technology is hampered in application due to its short sequencingreads and systematic errors. Here, a novel method, Full-length multi-barcoding (FLMB) vialong-read sequencing, is employed for the identification of biological compositions in herbalcompound formulas in adequate and well controlled studies. By directly sequencing the full-lengthamplicons of ITS2…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Shared and unique microbes between Small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) and their honey bee hosts.

The small hive beetle (SHB) is an opportunistic parasite that feeds on bee larvae, honey, and pollen. While SHBs can also feed on fruit and other plant products, like its plant-feeding relatives, SHBs prefer to feed on hive resources and only reproduce inside bee colonies. As parasites, SHBs are inevitably exposed to bee-associated microbes, either directly from the bees or from the hive environment. These microbes have unknown impacts on beetles, nor is it known how extensively beetles transfer microbes among their bee hosts. To identify sets of beetle microbes and the transmission of microbes from bees to beetles, a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length 16S rRNA gene classification of Atlantic salmon bacteria and effects of using different 16S variable regions on community structure analysis.

Understanding fish-microbial relationships may be of great value for fish producers as fish growth, development and welfare are influenced by the microbial community associated with the rearing systems and fish surfaces. Accurate methods to generate and analyze these microbial communities would be an important tool to help improve understanding of microbial effects in the industry. In this study, we performed taxonomic classification and determination of operational taxonomic units on Atlantic salmon microbiota by taking advantage of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Skin mucus was dominated by the genera Flavobacterium and Psychrobacter. Intestinal samples were dominated by the genera Carnobacterium, Aeromonas,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution.

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New long-read sequencing technologies can sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene, but higher error rates have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial communities of known composition, our method recovered the full complement of full-length 16S sequence variants from expected community members…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Anthropogenic N deposition, fungal gene expression, and an increasing soil carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere.

Terrestrial ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere are a globally important sink for anthropogenic CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, slowing its accumulation as well as the pace of climate warming. With the use of a long-term field experiment (ca. 20 yr), we show that the expression of fungal class II peroxidase genes, which encode enzymes mediating the rate-limiting step of organic matter decay, are significantly downregulated (-60 to -80%) because of increases in anthropogenic N deposition; this response was consistent with a decline in extracellular peroxidase enzyme activity in soil, the slowing of organic-matter decay, and greater soil C storage. The reduction…

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